DRUG AND ALCOHOLIC ABUSE AMONG THE YOUTHS (2023)

ABSTRACT

This project is an analysis of Drug and Alcoholic abuse among the youths in Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State. The nature of continuous exposure to the street and its associated lifestyles makes most youths vulnerable to the use of psychoactive substances. At present, there is insufficient information regarding the pattern of psychoactive substance use among
this group of children in Nigeria. The most commonly used psychoactive substances were alcohol, kola nut, tobacco
and cannabis. None of the respondents reported the use of cocaine, opiates or hallucinogens. Length of stay on the
street was found to be significantly predictive of current psychoactive substance use. The readily available and
relatively cheap substances were in common use among street children with the length of stay on the street being a
significant predictive factor. The affected community and the government should design methods of curtailing the
problem of drug use and helping the children off the street.

(Video) Alcoholism and Drug Abuse in Teenagers | Megan Hanley | TEDxBarringtonHighSchool

CHAPTER ONE

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

(Video) Voices of Youth: Substance Use Vignettes

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Alcohol use and abuse is a serious problem among young people. There are a number of unhealthy risks associated
with it, including alcohol dependence, and alcohol related accidents and violence.
There are many factors that contribute to the influence of drug abuse or drug addiction among the Nigerian youths,
namely peer groups, parental background (broken home), and emotional stress among others.
Today, majority of people m the country believe that drug abuse is a cankerworm and a disturbing problem in the lives
of our youths.
It has already been established that drug abuse is a factor to be reckoned with. While some people see it from the
psychological point of view as part of Erikson’s Psycho-social Development and Maslow’s Need Gratification Theory
(1954), others perceive drug abuse as a societal malaise.
That it is socially unacceptable in Nigeria is manifested in some recent anti-drug agencies formed in different parts of
the country. For instance, apart from institutional and state anti-drug agencies, the Federal Government created the
National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA). This shows the extent to which drug abuse has assumed national
importance.
It is therefore an evil to be properly watched, monitored and discouraged. Like “little drops of water that forms
oceans”, it probably started at home, school, or societal levels only to become a phenomenon of uncontrollable
magnitude. The research work reported in this paper arose because this phenomenon from all Indications is worth
probing into especially from the view point of controlling this menace in our society.
Young people who persistently abuse substances often experience an array of problem, including, academic
difficulties, health-related problems (including mental health), poor peer relationships and involvement with the
juvenile justice system. Additionally, there are consequences for family members, the community, and the entire
society. In fact, the most likely cause of death for a 16 year old is alcohol related. For that reason, it is important to
clearly understand the extent of youth involvement in underage drinking.
The impact of drug and alcohol abuse among Nigerian youth has been a stigma of a morally bankrupt, decadent and
wasted generation that must be revitalized and collectively salvaged together in order to prevent the total
degeneration and loss of our societal values and ideals. What is the brain behind our rotten society via the Nigerian
youth? The answer is not fetched; it’s simply drug and substance abuse.
We cannot all sit on the fence and criminally pretend on the menace of drug abuse that has eaten very deep into the
fabrics of our society. The idea of smoking cigarette in the past is something very rare, unlike today that hard drugs
and marijuana is openly smoked and distributed freely in the open with the very law enforcement agents keeping a
blank eye. What do we mean by the term “drug abuse”? Drug abuse may be defined as the “arbitrary” overdependence or abuse of one particular drug with or without a prior medical diagnosis from qualified health
practitioners. Majority of the Nigerian youths ignorantly depend on one form of drug or the other for their various daily
activities – social, educational, political, moral, etc.
Dangerous drugs like cocaine, Indian hemp (marijuana), morphine, heroine, tobacco, ephedrine etc. Some of these
dangerous drugs are both represents and stimulants, making the users either to feel high (on top of the world!) or low
(below the sea level!) since there is a common adage which says “Show me your friend and I will tell you who you
are”.
The sociological implications of drug abuse among the Nigerian youth have been a major threat to the peaceful coexistence of all and sundry in our contemporary society, thereby destroying the socio-political dignity, personality and
integrity of dependence on life. The various consequences of the drug abuse or drug addiction are so devastating and
very shameful to the extent that both the national and international organizations all over the world are also worried
about the spread of this scourge among the Nigerian youths.
They are as follows: social violence among youths, armed robbery, mental disorders, 419 syndrome, social
miscreants (Area boys and girls), lawlessness among youth, lack of respect for elders, rape, and many more of the
social evils. Who is to hold to ransom and blame seriously for the menace of drug abuse among the Nigerian youth?
The family through non-internalization of social norms, the society or peer groups of our youths. Many narcotics have
been banned among our youths for their indiscriminate use by the international organizations like FAO (Food and
Agricultural Organization), WHO (World Health Organization) and our various local organizations. There is a proverb
in Latin which says “mens sana in corpore sano” – meaning – “a sound mind in a sound body.” Hence, the ever usage
of drugs and alcohol will never let one be in this state of sound mind in a sound body.
The various consequences of the drug abuse or drug addiction are so devastating and very shameful to the extent
that both the national and international organizations all over the world are also worried about the spread of this
scourge among the Nigerian youths. This deviant behavior happen the breeding ground for other social vices as
follows: social violence among youths, armed robbery, mental disorders, 419 syndrome, social miscreants (Area boys
and girls), lawlessness among youth, lack of respect for elders, rape, and many more of the social evils. Who is to
hold to ransom and blame seriously for the menace of drug abuse among the Nigerian youth? Parental background
via the society or peer groups of our youths?
In the higher institutions of learning, binge drinking has become another social norm. Binge drinking is the habit of
having five or more drinks in a row, which could have serious health risks. Although, binge drinking levels are lower
than they were in the 1980s, there is still a significant minority of youth who are engaging in this risky behavior. Binge
drinking levels increase throughout adolescence and peak at ages 18-22.
More than three-fourths of youth age 12-17 are not regular drinkers. It is very encouraging that despite some
sensational headlines d tragic incidents related to alcohol use and abuse, data from the past two decades show a
continuing trend of decreasing youth alcohol use. One major area of concern remains; however, the increasing
percentage of teens who binge drink.

(Video) Teenage Substance Abuse part 1

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

It is no longer new in our society that young people has taken after deviant behaviors to express themselves in our
society. Deviance is not a property inherent in certain forms of behavior (Erikson, 1962; Becker, 963; Lemert, 1972); it
is a property conferred upon particular behaviors by social definitions.
In the course of our daily lives, people use normative schemes available to them and make judgments regarding the
desirability or undesirability of this or that behavior. They then translate their judgments into favourable or
unfavourable consequences of those who engage in the behavior. In this sense, deviance is what people say it is.
From the foregoing, it is evident that the larger society frowns at alcohol and drug abuse by the youths.
In this research, attention will be focused on some important problems relating to the causes and challenges as it
affects the youths who abuse the usage of drugs and alcohol in Agege Local Government Area.
The problems among others include:
· The cultural and religious dimension of drugs and alcohol abuse by youths in Agege Local Government in
Lagos State.
· The socio-economic constraints.
· Efforts towards the rehabilitation of drug addicts and their eventual reintegration into the society.

(Video) Teen Substance Use & Abuse (Alcohol, Tobacco, Vaping, Marijuana, and More)

DRUG AND ALCOHOLIC ABUSE AMONG THE YOUTHS

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FAQs

What are the causes of drug abuse among youth? ›

The earliest influences to smoke, drink alcohol, or use drugs may come from the family. Factors that are related to drug use during adolescence include poor self-image, low religiosity, poor school performance, parental rejection, family dysfunction, abuse, under- or over-controlling by parents, and divorce.

What are the main causes of drug and alcohol abuse? ›

Mental health issues can lead to drug abuse and alcohol abuse. On the other hand, substance abuse can cause mental disorder symptoms. Similar environmental and genetic factors play a role in both conditions.
...
The Link Between Mental Health Disorders and Addiction
  • Mood regulation.
  • Impulse control.
  • Reward processing.

What are 5 effects of drug abuse? ›

Side effects of drug addiction may include:

Nausea and abdominal pain, which can also lead to changes in appetite and weight loss. Increased strain on the liver, which puts the person at risk of significant liver damage or liver failure. Seizures, stroke, mental confusion and brain damage. Lung disease.

How do drugs affect teenage behavior? ›

So if teens use drugs or alcohol to feel better, they'll run into problems more quickly than adults. Drinking or smoking marijuana can help make hopelessness, anxiety, irritability and negative thoughts disappear quickly. But over time, they'll make them worse. Teens also become addicted more quickly than adults.

What are the major effects of drug abuse on youths? ›

Harmful use of substances has multiple direct effects on adolescents. The likelihood of unemployment, physical health problems, dysfunctional social rela- tionships, suicidal tendencies, mental illness and even lower life expectancy is increased by substance use in adolescence.

How can we prevent drug abuse among youth today? ›

Consider other strategies to prevent teen drug abuse:
  1. Know your teen's activities. Pay attention to your teen's whereabouts. ...
  2. Establish rules and consequences. ...
  3. Know your teen's friends. ...
  4. Keep track of prescription drugs. ...
  5. Provide support. ...
  6. Set a good example.

How drug abuse is caused? ›

Causes of child abuse can include: isolation and lack of support — no family members, friends, partners or community support to help with the demands of parenting. stress — financial pressures, job worries, medical problems or caring for a family member with a disability.

What are the causes and effects of drug addiction? ›

Long-Term Effects of Drug or Alcohol Abuse

Using drugs or alcohol can cause dehydration-induced seizures and damage immune systems. This increases susceptibility to infection and further complications, psychotic behavior, and serious cardiovascular conditions, including heart attacks and collapsed veins.

What are the common cause of drugs? ›

Adverse childhood experiences such as emotional, physical, or sexual abuse increase your risk for drug addiction. Social pressure. Social pressure from peers and friends is a serious risk factor, especially for young people in danger of starting to abuse drugs. Lack of family support or involvement.

What are the 10 causes of drug abuse? ›

Causes of Substance Use Disorders
  • Family history of addiction.
  • Sleep problems.
  • Chronic pain.
  • Financial difficulties.
  • Divorce or the loss of a loved one.
  • Long-term tobacco habit.
  • Tense home environment.
  • Lack of parental attachment in childhood.
11 Dec 2017

What is the solution of drug abuse? ›

Structured treatment programs, substance abuse counseling, and 12-Step programs do help. While they are not the only sources of help, they are the most consistently effective, especially when combined in some systematic fashion. Treatment and counseling provide structure, support, and intervention.

What is the impact of drug abuse in our society? ›

Overall, substance abuse costs the United States more than $740 billion a year in terms of health care, work productivity and crime; of that figure, illicit drug abuse costs $193 billion and prescription opioid abuse costs another $78.5 billion.

What are the effects of drug and alcohol abuse in adolescence? ›

Brain damage among teens who abuse drugs includes brain shrinkage; impaired learning abilities; amnesia and memory problems; impaired reasoning, perception and intuition; increased or decreased socialization; and changes in sexual desire.

What are the best ways to prevent drug use and abuse? ›

Here are the top five ways to prevent substance abuse:
  1. Understand how substance abuse develops. ...
  2. Avoid Temptation and Peer Pressure. ...
  3. Seek help for mental illness. ...
  4. Examine the risk factors. ...
  5. Keep a well-balanced life.
7 Jul 2021

How can we reduce the use and abuse of drugs? ›

Know your triggers
  1. avoiding places where you know drugs and alcohol will be available.
  2. surrounding yourself with friends who don't use drugs.
  3. knowing how to resist temptation.
  4. learning how to cope with stress and relax without drugs.
  5. distracting yourself with activities like exercise or listening to music.
4 Mar 2020

Why is it important to prevent the use of drugs? ›

As noted previously, early use of drugs increases a person's chances of becoming addicted. Remember, drugs change the brain—and this can lead to addiction and other serious problems. So, preventing early use of drugs or alcohol may go a long way in reducing these risks.

What are 4 consequences of drug abuse? ›

Drug abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families.

What is the main effect of a drug? ›

The drug affects chemicals and receptors within the brain, causing different effects depending on the type of drug. Your body then metabolises the drug or breaks it down into simpler molecules (known as metabolites) which can be more easily eliminated. Sometimes these metabolites can also affect your body.

What are the problems of addiction? ›

People with addiction often have one or more associated health issues, which could include lung or heart disease, stroke, cancer, or mental health conditions. Imaging scans, chest X-rays, and blood tests can show the damaging effects of long-term drug use throughout the body.

What can be done to reduce drug abuse in schools? ›

Elements of Good Practice for Drug Prevention
  • Information dissemination programs which teach primarily about drugs and their effects;
  • Fear arousal programs that emphasize risks associated with drug use;
  • Moral appeal programs that teach about the evils of use and;
21 Jul 2022

What are 3 risk factors to drug use? ›

Risk Factors for High-Risk Substance Use

Family history of substance use. Favorable parental attitudes towards the behavior. Poor parental monitoring.

What are the 5 types of drug abuse? ›

Some of the most common types of drug abuse include the following:
  • Stimulant Abuse. Stimulants are substances that cause physical and psychological functions to speed up. ...
  • Cocaine Abuse. ...
  • Adderall Abuse. ...
  • Meth Abuse. ...
  • Opioid Abuse. ...
  • Heroin Abuse. ...
  • Prescription Painkillers. ...
  • Sedative Abuse.

What is the main definition of drug abuse? ›

Listen to pronunciation. (...uh-BYOOS) The use of illegal drugs or the use of prescription or over-the-counter drugs for purposes other than those for which they are meant to be used, or in excessive amounts. Drug abuse may lead to social, physical, emotional, and job-related problems.

What are the effects of youth alcohol usage? ›

Disruption of normal growth or sexual development. Physical and sexual violence. Increased risk of suicide and homicide. Alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes and other unintentional injuries, such as burns, falls, or drowning.

What are the causes of drug abuse among high school students? ›

The study revealed that peer pressure, family problems, experimenting and exposure are the major causes of drug use/abuse by adolescents in schools.

How drug abuse is caused? ›

Causes of child abuse can include: isolation and lack of support — no family members, friends, partners or community support to help with the demands of parenting. stress — financial pressures, job worries, medical problems or caring for a family member with a disability.

What are the causes and effects of alcohol and drug abuse on students? ›

Substance Abuse and Academics

Addicted minors may miss school more often and may have difficulty focusing on school when in class. Drinking and drug use can lead juveniles to become withdrawn from their peer group and can increase depression, which has a significant effect on a child's academic performance.

What are the effects of drug abuse to students? ›

The study revealed that poor academic performance, school drop-outs, early marriages, aggressive and violent behaviour are the major effects of drug use/abuse by adolescents in schools. Findings of the study indicated that there are efforts put at school level to fight against drug abuse.

What are the causes and effects of drug addiction? ›

Long-Term Effects of Drug or Alcohol Abuse

Using drugs or alcohol can cause dehydration-induced seizures and damage immune systems. This increases susceptibility to infection and further complications, psychotic behavior, and serious cardiovascular conditions, including heart attacks and collapsed veins.

What is the impact of abuse? ›

Maltreatment can cause victims to feel isolation, fear, and distrust, which can translate into lifelong psychological consequences that can manifest as educational difficulties, low self-esteem, depression, and trouble forming and maintaining relationships.

What is Drug Abuse explain? ›

(...uh-BYOOS) The use of illegal drugs or the use of prescription or over-the-counter drugs for purposes other than those for which they are meant to be used, or in excessive amounts. Drug abuse may lead to social, physical, emotional, and job-related problems.

Videos

1. Substance Use Disorders Among Adolescents and Young Adults
(TheIRETAchannel)
2. How Addiction Happens
(How Addiction Happens)
3. Smoking, Drinking and Drug Use among Young People in England 2014
(NatCen Social Research)
4. Rising up against drug and substance abuse among the youth
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5. Factors That Put Teens at Risk for Drug and Alcohol Use
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6. Impact of Social Media on Drug and Alcohol Use Among Teens - Cityline - June 11, 2021
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