Horizontal Violence: Can Sign Language Interpreters Break the Cycle? (2022)

Horizontal Violence is a prevalent concern in the profession of interpreting. It causes disharmony, burn out and unsuccessful work. The Demand Control Schema approach to discussing our work could be the answer to lessening the internal strife of our profession.

[Click to view post in ASL]

When did it become acceptable to judge our interpreter colleagues? How did we learn that negatively judging someone’s skills, decisions and professionalism was a good way to behave in our profession? Carl Rogers spoke of unconditional positive regard as a psychological approach to allow a person to reach their full potential as a human being. “The main factor in an unconditional positive regard is the ability to be able to isolate behaviors from the person who commits them” (Rogers, 1961). What if we, as sign language interpreters, could adopt that approach to advance our profession? Overly-critical perspectives of each other have detrimental effects on the collaborative environment required for working interpreters to be successful. Yet this tendency is prevalent in the field, leads to interpreter burn out and plagues our ITPs. So where did it start and most importantly, how do we stop it?

Horizontal Violence

Fellow interpreter, Emily Ott, focused her Master’s thesis on intergenerational communication concerns in the sign language interpreting community and found a disturbing trend in our field, horizontal violence.

“Begley and Glacken (2004) characterized the behaviors of horizontal violence as a broad range of antagonism, including “gossiping, criticism, innuendo, scapegoating, undermining, intimidation, passive aggression, withholding information, insubordination, and verbal and physical aggression. Other specific behaviors include…subtle or overt insults and ridicule, ignoring the victim, making demands that are impossible for the victim to fulfill, or devaluing a person’s work or efforts” (Ott, 2012).

Due to lack of specific research on sign language interpreters, Ott’s research focused predominately on other professional fields with similar characteristics to the sign language interpreting community. “…the fields of nursing and education, which, like interpreting, are service professions where work is done with people. Also, like interpreting, those fields are both comprised of more than 75% women (Ott, 2012). As I read more about the topic of horizontal violence, I realized I had witnessed some of these behaviors personally, and/or had worked with mentees who described such experiences as they worked with colleagues. I felt a sense of relief in discovering that these experiences had a name and that other professions are plagued by the same behaviors. Then, I was filled with dread, knowing the phenomenon of horizontal violence has a name and it was prevalent enough as to be researched and identified.

The field of sign language interpreting is young and the growing pains have been rough. Rotating certifications, increasing education requirements, price competition and progressive use of technology at the cost of best practices have taken their toll. Rather than working together and striving towards the greater good of communication access for an underserved community, sign language interpreters draw lines, build walls and work in fear. We claim we want to be allies for the Deaf community. First, however, we should learn to be allies with ourselves; we should start with our colleagues.

“Harvey (2008) found that interpreters tend to be critical and unkind toward one another as a consequence of witnessing oppression regularly, a situation that causes interpreters to behave like oppressed groups. Freire (1992) would argue that the gender composition of the interpreting field, at 87% female, is the reason interpreters behave like an oppressed group, because the field’s members experience oppression themselves” (Ott, 2012).

(Video) Horizontal Violence: Can Sign Language Interpreters Break the Cycle?

Whatever the underlying cause, the symptoms of Horizontal Violence are prevalent. The tendency to point out colleagues’ shortcomings creates hurt feelings, distrust, burn-out and shrinks the qualified interpreter pool as sign language interpreters seek more affirming professional outlets. If we are approaching our work from a basis of fear of judgment, we will never do our best, take chances or advance to a better place.

Focus on the Work

Sign language interpreters are taught how to identify language errors very early in our careers, but we are not taught how to collaborate towards a common goal in our work or how to talk about our work in a safe, neutral way. The words “you did” and “I would have done” fall out of our mouths like old habits. We often focus on the person, rather than the work product. We forget that interpreting is an art, not a science and immediately fall into the “right sign, wrong sign” mode, which we know is not the true way we operate. We know sign language interpreters live in an “it depends” world of work, and yet we take the deontological, or rules-based, approach to judge other professionals’ choices without insight into the unique contexts and thought processes that resulted in that choice. I would suggest that this is not the best approach to our work; do we not have an obligation to rise above?

Reflective Practice

Earlier this year, I had the opportunity to join a supervision or reflective practice group rooted in the demand control- schema (DC-S). For more information, see Robin Dean’s post, Ethical Development: A Sign of the Times for Sign Language Interpreters? At first, I did not feel qualified to be a part of the group and hesitated to join. While I have seen Robyn Dean and Dr. Pollard lecture on several occasions and felt I had a good working knowledge of DC-S, I knew I still struggled to articulate the aspects of the DC-S and lacked the skill of properly identifying the demands and controls of an interpreting assignment. Nevertheless, I joined; the group consisted of a small group with members from the U.S. and abroad which met online twice a month for two hours for five months. My group facilitator had a wealth of knowledge and understanding of DC-S and had been specifically trained to be a group Supervisor. As the meetings progressed, I realized that I was not alone in my struggles and the facilitator assured the other members and me to “stay with the (DC-S) structure, and trust the process.”

As I got ready to present my first case, I was nervous. Preparing to present gave me the opportunity to reflect on all the demands I was dealing with in this situation – multiple players, politics, medical views of Deaf and Hard of Hearing people, power dynamics, systems barriers, etc. As Kenda Keller states in her article,Case Discussion: Sign Language Interpreters Contain Their Inner “What the…!!!?”,the self-discovery of this process (reflective practice) is profound. Merely taking the time to write down all the demands I encountered during the assignment, as well as the controls I employed, was enough to help me realize (after the fact) just how complicated this situation was to interpret.

As presentation day approached, I focused on the case and the ground rules that had been established at the start of the sessions:

-No judgment language

– Keep the dialogue focused on the case

– Speak when moved

(Video) Horizontal Violence with Example

– Confidentiality

– Agree to Disagree

– Unconditional Positive Regard

Horizontal Violence: Can Sign Language Interpreters Break the Cycle? (1)

As I presented and the discussion progressed, I felt enormous relief – as if a weight I had been carrying was suddenly lightened. The ability to speak freely about the choices I made and the reasons I made them allowed for an honest discussion about what interpreters do in our daily work and how we affect the dynamics of an often fluid and ever-changing situation. Ironically, immediately after this interpreting job, I had felt bad and guilty about some of the controls I had employed but after reflecting with my group, I realized all the decisions I had made were based in real professional values. Additionally, I realized the resulting demands did not always have anything to do with me and my applied controls. At the end of our meeting, my interpreting case was not ‘solved’ but having other professional view points, neutral perspectives and new ideas for controls allowed me to go back into this job with a fresh perspective. I may not change applied controls drastically but I will know that I now have more options and a thorough understanding of the reasons behind my choices.

Join Us

In the end I was grateful for the opportunity and look forward to doing it again. I also look forward to working a case with fellow colleagues in this group, and future groups. Sign language interpreters know the work is difficult. We use controls during an assignment that we sometimes later wish we could take back. But, at the time, and in the moment while we are working, those controls were the best option we felt we had, knowing what we knew. Hindsight is 20/20. Rather than criticizing each other (or ourselves), we need to take those experiences, discuss them in a professional, positive manner and grow. In order to be true practice professionals, we must incorporate case conferencing into the education of future interpreters, as well as our current approach to work.

“Much as horizontal violence leads to professionals being wary of supervision, Catalano and Tillie (1991) found that teachers at all levels who participated in supervision and mentorship felt more engaged, connected and empowered to develop as professionals” (Ott, 2012).

All practice professions need to have a safe place that allows them to honestly analyze, understand, and critique their work. This is no different for the sign language interpreting profession, as Dean and Pollard have pointed out (Dean and Pollard, 2013). Only then will this profession advance and become the effective and ethical profession it can be. It is natural to feel that when we do something, it is with the best intentions. However, we often do not extend that consideration to others. Let us work together to change, so that we may assume of others what we assume of ourselves.

For more information on interpreter case conference opportunities please visit http://demandcontrolschema.com/ and sign up for the e-mail blasts from Robyn Dean and Dr. Pollard.

(Video) Cycle of Violence

Questions to Consider

  1. What are some of the underlying causes of horizontal violence?
  2. Where do you believe horizontal violence is learned in our field and can we prevent it?
  3. How does Horizontal Violence affect the communities we work with?
  4. What have some of your experiences been with DC-S?

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Related StreetLeverage Posts

How Do Sign Language Interpreters Avoid Mentoring’s Dodgy Undertow by Lynne Wiesman

Why Do Qualified Sign Language Interpreters Get Less Work? By Kendra Keller

Sign Language Interpreters: Breaking Down Silos Through Reflective Practice by Anna Witter-Merithew


Dean, R., & Pollard, R. (2004). A practice-profession model of ethical reasoning. Views,21(9), 25-28.

Dean, R. K., & Pollard, R. (2001). Application of demand-control theory to sign languageinterpreting: Implications for stress and interpreter training. Journal of DeafStudies and Deaf Education, 6(1), 1-14.

(Video) Violence

Ott, Emily K., “Do We Eat Our Young and One Another? Horizontal Violence Among SignedLanguage Interpreters” (2012). Master’s Theses. Paper 1.

Rogers, C. R. (1961).On becoming a person: a therapist’s view of psychotherapy. Boston:Houghton Mifflin Company.

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Horizontal Violence: Can Sign Language Interpreters Break the Cycle? (2)

Kate Block

CI/CT, MBA, MM, QMHI-S, SC:LCertificate in Healthcare InterpretingKate is a freelance interpreter who works mainly in Wisconsin. Kate’s work experience includes Mental Health, Legal, VRS, religious and post-secondary environments. Kate also attended the State of Alabama Mental Health Interpreting workshop, received her “Q” and was awarded supervisor status for distance internships.

More by Kate Block


Why are there two sign language interpreters at the same time? ›

Using two interpreters helps everyone because it gives the interpreters time to rest and provides the communicating parties a more accurate translation. The quality of the interpretation increases when there are multiple interpreters because they keep one another accountable for accuracy.

Are ASL interpreters accurate? ›

In contrast, expert interpreters were equally accurate when working into ASL (72.7%) and into English (75.7%), (t(14) = 0.693, p = . 500). The interaction between participant group and interpretation direction was significant, F(2, 28) = 12.634, p = . 001.

Can sign language interpreters wear nail polish? ›

DON'T. Wear accessories, nail polish, or jewelry. Show up sloppy. Wrinkly clothes and body odor are unbelievably distracting.

Can hard of hearing be interpreters? ›

A deaf interpreter (DI) is an individual who is deaf or hard of hearing and possess excellent communication skills in both American Sign Language and English.

What is a sign language interpreter called? ›

A Deaf Interpreter is a specialist who provides interpreting, translation, and transliteration services in American Sign Language and other visual and tactual communication forms used by individuals who are Deaf, hard-of-hearing, and Deaf-Blind.

What is the difference between a signer and interpreter? ›

A signer is a person who can communicate conversationally with people who are deaf or hard of hearing. An interpreter is a person who is not only bilingual but has also received specialized training and credentials to develop the skills and expertise needed to mediate meanings across languages and cultures.

What makes a good ASL interpreter? ›

An effective ASL interpreter needs to feel passionate about helping two people connect on a stronger level so they can understand each other despite the language barrier. They also need to have deep cultural knowledge and understanding of Deaf culture and how the Deaf community operates to avoid faux pas.

Do all Deaf people need an interpreter? ›

Examples of communication support

Deaf people have the right to have a qualified interpreter for medical appointments. Children and family members should not be used as interpreters or communicators generally. However, sometimes it may be suitable for an adult, for example a spouse or partner, to act as an interpreter.

Why Deaf interpreters are important? ›

The Deaf-Hearing interpreter team ensures that the spoken language message reaches the Deaf consumer in a language or communication form that he or she can understand, and that the Deaf consumer's message is conveyed successfully in the spoken language.

Can sign language interpreters have tattoos? ›

Often, as an interpreter, if you have tattoos on your arms, you may be asked to wear longsleeves to cover them up. Just be aware of that if you work as an interpreter and want to get tattoos. Just keep that in consideration.

Why do ASL interpreters wear black? ›

Sign language interpreters have to follow specific guidelines of behavior and appearance. Their attire should be unobtrusive, and they were taught during their training to wear black or clothing made from dark-colored fabric. Moreover, clothing with dark colors helps people with low vision to see them better.

What shouldn't an interpreter do? ›

Interpreters should never paraphrase, summarize, expand on the original speaker's words or offer any personal opinions.

Who is the best ASL interpreter? ›

Famous Hollywood Interpreter: Jack Jason

Jack Jason is known as Hollywood's ASL interpreter. He's most famous for his work for actress Marlee Matlin, with whom he's worked for over 20 years. Jason is celebrated for conveying Matlin's voice – casual and also professional – as well as reflecting Matlin's personality.

Is being deaf a disability? ›

Deafness is clearly defined as a disability under the ADA, as major life activities include hearing,10 9 and hearing impairments are clearly specified as a physical or mental disability." 0 While this resolves the issue for most individuals and entities, the Deaf Community takes a different view.

Are police trained to deal with deaf people? ›

Under the Americans with Disabilities Act, which was signed into law three decades ago, law enforcement agencies are required to “provide effective communication.” But most police departments offer officers little, if any, training on how to interact with people who are deaf and fewer officers know even rudimentary ...

What skills do you need to be a sign language interpreter? ›

4 Key Skills of a Sign Language Interpreter
  • Knowing every sign perfectly. ...
  • Exceptional observation skills. ...
  • Quick thinking. ...
  • Experience in many fields.
21 Aug 2017

Are sign language interpreters in high demand? ›

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics expects the employment of interpreters and translators to grow 24% from 2020 to 2030. This is much faster than the average for all other occupations. The BLS predicts an increased demand for ASL interpreters in particular as more organizations use video relay services.

How do you get a deaf person's attention? ›

Wave your hand in their line of sight. This is how Deaf people get the attention of one another. Tap them lightly on the shoulder. If they have their back turned away from you, get the attention of somebody in their line of sight, and have that person point at you.

How many certified ASL interpreters are there in the US? ›

The market for American Sign Language interpreting services is dominated by small, local providers, with several large, national players. The Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf lists 10,253 certified ASL interpreters in the United States and Canada (at the time of writing).

What are the different types of ASL interpreters? ›

  • ASL Interpreter.
  • Deaf Interpreter (DI).
  • Pro-Tactile Interpreter.
  • Oral Transliterator.
  • Cued Speech Transliterator.
  • Trilingual Interpreter.

What is the role of an ASL interpreter? ›

The role of the interpreter is to interpret between people who use a signed language and a spoken language and provide complete and accurate information both to Deaf and hearing people.

What are the 4 most important qualities an interpreter should have? ›

5 Characteristics of a Qualified Professional Interpreter
  • LANGUAGE SKILLS. Most people don't realize the extent to which knowledge and vocabulary an interpreter needs in his/her native language. ...
17 Apr 2018

How can I improve my interpreter skills? ›

Learn How To Develop Best Interpreting Skills
  1. Note Taking. ...
  2. Form Own Notation System. ...
  3. Trust Your Memory Skills. ...
  4. Build Up Your Vocabulary. ...
  5. Keep Cultural Differences In Mind. ...
  6. Watch Videos. ...
  7. Use Or Develop Symbols & Abbreviations.
22 Jan 2019

How do you become a successful interpreter? ›

Understanding the cultural environment is the key to success in the interpreting profession.
  1. Understand the Cultural Aspect.
  2. Continue Building Your Vocabulary.
  3. Listen Attentively.
  4. Take Notes and Research on Topic.
  5. Develop Communication and Customer Service Skills.
  6. Gain Relevant Experiences.
  7. Get Professional Certifications.
7 Dec 2020

Can deaf people lip read? ›

Only 30% of spoken English can be accurately lip read (even by the best lip reader who has been deaf for many years). This makes it very hard for a deaf person to correctly read the speaker's lips. This is because many words cannot be differentiated as they have the same lip pattern.

What language do deaf people think in? ›

Hearing-impaired (also referred to as deaf) people think in terms of their “inner voice”. Some of them think in ASL (American Sign Language), while others think in the vocal language they learned, with their brains coming up with how the vocal language sounds.

How deaf people speak emotions? ›

Deaf people use facial expressions while they are using sign language to express their own emotions or to describe the emotions of others, through the use of the same range of emotional facial expressions used naturally by the general population e.g. happiness, anger, sadness etc.

What is the difference between ASL interpreter and deaf interpreter? ›

While most ASL interpreters are specially trained hearing people with fluency in American Sign Language and a strong understanding of Deaf culture; Deaf interpreters are typically native sign language users who have the actual lived experience of deafness.

What you mean by interpreter? ›

Definition of interpreter

1 : one that interprets: such as. a : one who translates orally for parties conversing in different languages. b : one who explains or expounds.

How does deaf interpretation work? ›

When a Deaf interpreter is used as part of the interpreting team, he or she interprets what the hearing interpreter says, using an appropriate level of ASL, sign, gesture, or other communication strategies to convey the message to the Deaf consumer.

How do you say tattoo in sign language? ›

Tattoo is an iconic sign. Take your dominant hand, hold your index finger and thumb together, like you are holding a needle, and proceed to mimic tattooing your opposite arm just under the shoulder.

Why do deaf people move their lips when signing? ›

The system helps convey the spoken language visually. On the practical side, mouthing is a preference of many ASL interpreters because they think it adds more meaning to what they sign, helping viewers understand the information they are conveying better. However, signers do not mouth the exact English word.

Why do deaf signers make facial expressions? ›

"In sign language, facial expressions are used to express both linguistic information and emotions. For example: eyebrow raise is necessary to mark general questions in most sign languages. At the same time, signers use the face to express emotions – either their own, or when quoting someone else.

Why do hand signers move their mouths? ›

Signers are animated not because they are bubbly and energetic, but because sign language uses face and body movements as part of its grammar. In American Sign Language, certain mouth and eye movements serve as adjectival or adverbial modifiers.

Why family members should not be interpreters? ›

Untrained interpreters are prone to omissions, additions, substitutions, opinions and volunteered answers. For example, family members or friends may not understand the need to interpret everything the patient says and may summarize information instead.

When working with an interpreter you should avoid doing the following? ›

Avoid: Highly idiomatic speech, complicated sentence structure, sentence fragments, changing your idea in the middle of a sentence, and asking multiple questions at one time. Also avoid making assumptions or generalizations about your patient or their experiences.

What should an interpreter wear? ›

Business casual wear is always a safe option, and more conservative colors such as earth tones never hurt. While bright colors and patterns can be incorporated into business casual attire, you want to make sure you still keep things professional.

Where do ASL interpreters get paid the most? ›

Highest paying cities for Sign Language Interpreters near United States
  • Washington, DC. $43.40 per hour. 19 salaries reported.
  • Atlanta, GA. $34.89 per hour. 5 salaries reported.
  • Houston, TX. $34.50 per hour. 5 salaries reported.
  • Fort Collins, CO. $31.79 per hour. ...
  • Sacramento, CA. $29.72 per hour. ...
  • Show more nearby cities.
13 Sept 2022

What college has the best ASL program? ›

Here are the best colleges with a Asl Major
  • Princeton University.
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  • Harvard University.
  • Stanford University.
  • Yale University.
  • University of Chicago.
  • Johns Hopkins University.
  • University of Pennsylvania.

How much do ASL interpreters make in DC? ›

Average base salary

The average salary for a sign language interpreter is $34.31 per hour in Washington, DC. 19 salaries reported, updated at August 30, 2022.

Can I get money for being deaf? ›

Is Being Deaf a Disability? Yes - being deaf is considered a disability because it can affect the way you participate in everyday life including going to work. The Social Security Administration (SSA) automatically grants disability benefits for victims who suffer from for profound hearing loss in both ears.

How deaf is legally deaf? ›

If you are unable to detect sounds quieter than 90dB HL (decibels Hearing Level), it is considered a profound hearing loss for those frequencies. If the average of the frequencies at 500Hz, 1000Hz, and 2000Hz is 90dB or higher, the person is considered deaf.

How much money can a deaf person get through SSDI? ›

90 percent of the first $1,024 of the claimant's average indexed monthly earnings, plus. 32 percent of the claimant's average indexed monthly earnings over $1,024 and through $6,172, plus.

Can you handcuff a deaf person? ›

Most of the time, the police handcuff a person in the back, but for Deaf people, it's important to be handcuffed in the front of the body, so that they can still communicate using sign language.

What are the rights of a deaf person? ›

Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), people who are deaf or hard of hearing are entitled to the same services law enforcement provides to anyone else. They may not be excluded or segregated from services, be denied services, or otherwise be treated differently than other people.

How many hours do cadets learn about the deaf community? ›

What is Deaf Community Police Academy? The academy is an 8 hour course designed to give community members a working knowledge of the Police Department.

Why do they swap sign language interpreters? ›

Be aware that interpreters working in pairs typically swap every 15 minutes. This is to avoid fatigue and maintain a high level of accuracy throughout the event, but this will often require reframing.

How many interpreters do I need? ›

When in doubt, always use a minimum of two interpreters. Click here for our blog on the 6 Major Types of Interpreting, an exploration of the different types of interpreting to help you determine the type of interpreting that will best suit your needs.

What are the benefits of team interpreting? ›

Hence, team interpreting provides the court with an additional measure of security to ensure that the record is accurate and the non-‐English speaking parties are fully present and able to participate in the proceedings. Spoken language interpreter associations are in accord.

Why do you need a sign language interpreter? ›

Sign language interpreting helps deaf and hard of hearing people communicate, and in the United States, it is often legally required. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 established a series of measures to prohibit instances of discrimination because of a person's disability.

Do all deaf people need an interpreter? ›

Examples of communication support

Deaf people have the right to have a qualified interpreter for medical appointments. Children and family members should not be used as interpreters or communicators generally. However, sometimes it may be suitable for an adult, for example a spouse or partner, to act as an interpreter.

Why do interpreters work in teams of two? ›

Teamwork Makes for Faster Interpreting

Since teamwork allows interpreters to work in shifts and catch a bit of a break, it also ensures that simultaneous interpreting is able to keep the pace. A fatigued interpreter may start to fall behind, leaving out valuable words or even full sentences.

Why don t deaf people just use subtitles? ›

It's much easier for sign language users to keep track of who's speaking with a qualified interpreter, who'll take on aspects of the character that they're conveying. And unlike sign language interpretation, subtitles rarely indicate sound effects or music.

How many hours a day do interpreters work? ›

Regardless, most interpreters and translators work 40 hours a week, typically during normal business hours.

Why do simultaneous interpreters take a break each 20 30 minutes? ›

Due to the high concentration demanded from the interpreter when doing simultaneous interpreting, they need to rest every half hour. This type of interpreting requires special equipment, like soundproof booths, conference headsets, wiring from the booths to the headsets and microphones.

How long can a consecutive interpreter work? ›

Interpreting is mentally exhausting work so an interpreter should never work for more than 45 minutes at a time without a break. For simultaneous interpreting the guidelines are a lot stricter in that you should hire two interpreters for a whole day, with each interpreter taking turns of 20 to 30 minutes each.

What are the limitations of an interpreter? ›

Professional interpreters do have limitations; these include but are not limited to confidentiality for the patient, accuracy of information, comfort level with information being translated, and the lack of a relationship with the patient.

What are the benefits of cultural interpreters? ›

Cultural interpreters can facilitate clinician–patient interaction in a number of ways. In any office visit between a physician or other care provider and newcomer family members, a skilled interpreter can: Help ensure that everyone understands both words and meaning 'in the moment', as they are being used.

What you mean by interpreter? ›

Definition of interpreter

1 : one that interprets: such as. a : one who translates orally for parties conversing in different languages. b : one who explains or expounds.

Is it important for sign language interpreters to socialize with the deaf community? ›

In order for students to be successful sign-language interpreters, prior to graduating it is critical that they develop a relationship with both the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Community (DHHC) and current-working professionals within the DHHC. This would include interpreters, educators and DHHC advocates.


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