Internal energy market | Fact Sheets on the European Union | European Parliament (2022)

In order to harmonise and liberalise the EU’s internal energy market, measures have been adopted since1996 to address market access, transparency and regulation, consumer protection, supporting interconnection, and adequate levels of supply. These measures aim to build a more competitive, customer-centred, flexible and non-discriminatory EU electricity market with market-based supply prices. In so doing, they strengthen and expand the rights of individual customers and energy communities, address energy poverty, clarify the roles and responsibilities of market participants and regulators and address the security of the supply of electricity, gas and oil, as well as the development of trans-European networks for transporting electricity and gas.

Legal basis

Articles 114 and194 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

Objectives

In the energy sector, completion of the EU’s internal market requires: the removal of numerous obstacles and trade barriers; the approximation of tax and pricing policies and measures in respect of norms and standards; and environmental and safety regulations. The objective is to ensure a functioning market with fair market access and a high level of consumer protection, as well as adequate levels of interconnection and generation capacity.

Achievements

A.Liberalisation of gas and electricity markets

During the1990s, when most national electricity and natural gas markets were still monopolies, the European Union and the Member States decided to open these markets gradually to competition. The first liberalisation directives (First Energy Package) were adopted in1996 (electricity) and1998 (gas), to be transposed into Member States’ legal systems by1998 (electricity) and2000 (gas). The Second Energy Package was adopted in2003, with its directives to be transposed into national law by Member States by2004, and some provisions entering into force only in2007. Industrial and domestic consumers were now free to choose their own gas and electricity suppliers from a wider range of competitors. In April2009, a Third Energy Package seeking to further liberalise the internal electricity and gas markets was adopted, amending the Second Package and providing the cornerstone for the implementation of the internal energy market. In June2019, a Fourth Energy Package consisting of one directive (Electricity Directive 2019/944/EU) and three regulations: the Electricity Regulation (2019/943/EU), the Risk-Preparedness Regulation (2019/941/EU) and the EU Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER) Regulation (2019/942/EU). The Fourth Energy package introduces new electricity market rules to meet the needs of renewable energies and to attract investments. It provides incentives for consumers and introduces a new limit for power plants to be eligible to receive subsidies as capacity mechanisms. It also makes it a requirement for the Member States to prepare contingency plans for potential electricity crises, and increases ACER’s competences in cross-border regulatory cooperation when there is the risk of national and regional fragmentation. The fifth energy package, ‘Delivering the European Green Deal‘, was released on 14 July 2021 with the aim of aligning the EU’s energy targets with the new European climate ambitions for 2030 and 2050; the debate on its energy aspects is ongoing.

B.Further steps

As announced in the Energy Union strategy (COM(2015)0080), in order to give consumers secure, sustainable, competitive and affordable energy, the Commission put forward the ‘Clean Energy for all Europeans’ (COM(2016)0860) package on 30November2016. The fourth energy package implements the Energy Union, covering energy efficiency, renewable energy, the design of the electricity market, security of electricity supply and governance rules for the Energy Union. To complete the internal energy market, the Commission adopted measures in the Electricity Directive, Electricity Risk-Preparedness Regulation and the ACER Regulation.

The regulation on the internal electricity market (Regulation (EU) 2019/943) revises the rules and principles of the internal electricity market in order to ensure its proper functioning and competitiveness. It supports the decarbonisation of the EU’s energy sector, removes barriers to cross-border trade in electricity and enables the EU’s transition to clean energy, honouring the commitments made in the Paris Agreement. The regulation defines a set of market-based principles for the operation of electricity markets: prices will be formed on the basis of demand and supply; customers will benefit from market rules and will be active market participants; incentives for decarbonised electricity generation will be market-based; barriers to cross-border electricity flows will be progressively removed; producers will be directly or indirectly responsible for their electricity sales; new conditions under which Member States could set up capacity mechanisms and the principles for their creation will be set out.

The directive on common rules for the internal market in electricity (Directive (EU) 2019/944) focuses on the Member States and consumers, defining a set of different provisions that put the consumer at the centre of the clean energy transition. Suppliers are free to determine the price at which they supply electricity to customers. The Member States ensure market-based price competition between suppliers; protection of energy-poor and vulnerable household customers; and entitlement for final customers to electricity provided by a supplier, subject to the supplier’s agreement, regardless of the Member State in which the EU-compliant supplier is registered. Consumers are able to request the installation of smart electricity meters at no additional cost; household customers and microenterprises have access, free of charge, to at least one tool comparing the offers of suppliers, including offers for dynamic electricity price contracts; to switch suppliers free of charge within a maximum of three weeks and to participate in collective switching schemes. End consumers with smart meters are able to request dynamic electricity pricing contracts with at least one large supplier; they have the right to act as active customers, for example by selling self-generated electricity, without being subject to disproportionate or discriminatory technical requirements, and to have summarised clear contractual conditions.

The Risk-Preparedness Regulation (Regulation (EU) 2019/941) strengthens risk preparedness by encouraging cooperation between transmission system operators in the EU and neighbouring countries and ACER. It also aims to facilitate the cross-border management of electricity grids in case of an electricity crisis through the new regional operating centres, which were introduced in the related regulation on the internal electricity market (Regulation (EU) 2019/943). The European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E) will develop and propose a common methodology for risk identification in cooperation with ACER and the Coordination Group for Electricity, which will subsequently be approved by ACER. Four sets of measures have been proposed: (1) common rules on how to prevent and prepare for electricity crises to ensure cross-border cooperation; (2) common rules for crisis management; (3) common methods to assess risks related to security of supply; (4) a common framework for better evaluation and monitoring of security of electricity supply.

On 14 July 2021, the Commission published the first part of the ‘Delivering the European Green Deal‘ package, which aims to achieve greenhouse gas emission reductions of at least 55% and a climate-neutral Europe by 2050. The debate on energy aspects of the fifth energy package is ongoing.

C.Energy market regulation: the EU Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators

The EU Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER) has been operational since March2011 (Regulation (EC) No713/2009). ACER is mainly responsible for promoting cooperation between national regulatory authorities at regional and European level and for monitoring development of the network and the internal electricity and gas markets. It also has the competence to investigate cases of market abuse and to coordinate the application of appropriate penalties with the Member States.

In June2019, the Commission adopted Regulation (2019/942/EU) to reform ACER to recast legal acts and strengthen its main role as a coordinator of the action of national regulators, especially in those areas where fragmented national decision-making on issues with cross-border relevance would lead to problems or inconsistencies for the internal market. ACER’s duties in the field of wholesale market supervision and cross-border infrastructure have been increased in order to give it more responsibility in elaborating and submitting the final proposal for a network code to the Commission and in influencing the regional electricity market (bidding zone) review process (laid down in the recast of the Electricity Regulation (2019/943/EU). The ACER Regulation (2019/942/EU) introduces fees as an additional source of funding to cover the costs of REMIT-related activities (‘REMIT fees’) performed by ACER. On 15 July 2020, DG Energy and ACER presented a proposal for a fee structure. On 17 December 2020, the Commission adopted Decision (EU) 2020/2152 on fees, which aims to cover the expenses for the operations such as collecting, handling, processing and analysing information performed by ACER.

As a further step, two regulations were adopted, creating structures of cooperation for European Network Transmission Systems Operators (ENTSOs): one for electricity (Regulation (EC) No714/2009) and one for gas (Regulation (EC) No715/2009) amended by Commission Decision2010/685/EU. The ENTSOs, together with ACER, create detailed network access rules and technical codes, and ensure the coordination of grid operation through the exchange of operational information and the development of common safety and emergency standards and procedures. ENTSOs are also responsible for drafting a10-year network investment plan every two years, which are then in turn reviewed by ACER.

In addition, Regulation (EU) 2016/1952 improves the transparency of gas and electricity prices charged to industrial end-users by obliging Member States to ensure that these prices and the pricing systems used are communicated to Eurostat once or twice a year. InOctober2011, the EU adopted Regulation (EU) No1227/2011 on wholesale energy market integrity and transparency (REMIT) aiming to guarantee fair trading practices on European energy markets.

D.Security of the supply of electricity, natural gas and oil

Regulation (EU) No2019/941 establishes measures aimed at safeguarding the security of electricity supply, to ensure the proper functioning of the internal market for electricity, an adequate level of interconnection between Member States, an adequate level of generation capacity, and balance between supply and demand. In light of the crucial importance of gas for the EU’s energy supply and as a response to the Russian-Ukrainian gas crisis during the winter of2008-2009, Regulation (EU) 2017/1938 concerning measures to safeguard the security of gas supply was adopted in2010 and revised in 2017. The regulation aims to strengthen prevention and crisis response mechanisms. With the aim of ensuring a secure oil supply, Directive2009/119/EC obliges Member States to maintain minimum oil stocks, corresponding to 90days of average daily net imports or 61days of average daily inland consumption, whichever of the two quantities is greater. In response to concerns regarding the delivery of Russian gas via Ukraine, the Commission released its Energy Security Strategy in May2014 (COM(2014)0330). The strategy aims to ensure a stable and abundant supply of energy for European citizens and the economy. It lays out measures such as increasing energy efficiency, promoting energy production within the EU, and completing missing infrastructure links to redirect energy to where it is needed during a crisis.

In May2019, the Commission adopted a targeted revision of the2009 Natural Gas Directive (Directive (EU) 2019/692). This would make key provisions of the Gas Directive immediately applicable to cross-border gas pipelines with third countries, or more specifically, to those parts of the pipelines in EU territory. This would help to ensure that no current, planned and future gas infrastructure project between a Member State and a third country distorts the single market for energy or weakens security of supply in the EU.

In September 2020, the Commission announced that a new regulatory framework for competitive decarbonised gas markets will be developed in 2021. To this end, on 10 February 2021 the Commission launched a public consultation. This initiative is a response to the challenge of decarbonising gas networks, and proposes to revise EU gas rules to facilitate the market entry for renewable and low-carbon gases and remove any undue regulatory barriers. The release of the new gas package is expected on 14 December 2021.

E.Trans-European Networks for Energy (TEN-E)

TEN-E is a policy focused on linking the energy infrastructure of the Member States. As part of the policy, nine priority corridors (four electricity corridors, four gas corridors and one oil corridor) and three priority thematic areas (smart grids deployment, electricity highways and a cross-border carbon dioxide network) have been identified.

Regulation (EU) No347/2013 lays down guidelines for trans-European energy networks that identify projects of common interest (PCIs) and priority projects among trans-European electricity and gas networks. PCIs for energy are funded by the Connecting Europe Facility for energy (CEF-E) – a funding instrument with a total budget of EUR5.35billion for the2014-2020 period, of which EUR4.8billion is in the form of grants managed by the Innovation and Networks Executive Agency (INEA). In2019, a total of EUR556million in CEF-E grants was allocated to eight PCIs, six in the electricity sector and two in the gas sector (see the list of2019 CEF-E PCI actions). The Commission establishes the list of PCIs via a delegated act, which enters into force only if Parliament or Council express no objection within a period of two months from its notification.

On 15 December 2020, the Commission adopted a proposal (COM(2020)0824) to revise the TEN-E Regulation to better support the modernisation of Europe’s cross-border energy infrastructure and achieve the objectives of the European Green Deal.

Role of the European Parliament

In adopting the legislative package on internal energy markets, Parliament has strongly supported transmission ownership unbundling in the electricity sector as the most effective tool to promote investment in infrastructure in a non-discriminatory way, fair access to the grid for new entrants, and transparency in the market. Parliament has also stressed the importance of a European common view of mid-term investments (indicative European10-year plan focused on interconnections); greater cooperation between regulatory authorities, Member States and transmission system operators; and a strong process of harmonisation of network access conditions. On the initiative of Parliament, special importance was placed on consumer rights, which was part of the deal achieved with the Council: the resolutions insisted on increasing consumer rights (change of suppliers, direct information through smart meters and efficient treatment of complaints made to an energy ‘ombudsman’). Parliament also obtained recognition of the concept of ‘energy poverty’. It has strongly supported the establishment of ACER, stressing that it had to be granted the necessary powers to overcome those issues that cannot be solved by national regulators and which hamper the integration and proper functioning of the internal market.

Recent major resolutions:

  • 11 February 2021: Parliament adopted a resolution urging Belarus to ensure full respect for international nuclear and environmental safety standards at its Ostrovets nuclear power plant.
  • 10 July 2020: Parliament adopted a resolution on the revision of the guidelines for trans-European energy infrastructure, calling for these to be revised by the end of 2020.
  • 15January2020: Parliament adopted a resolution on the European Green Deal, which stressed the importance of cross-border interconnections and of EU energy market integration in enhancing the security of energy supply, achieving a net-zero greenhouse gas economy, and highlighted the need to adequately fund ACER.
  • 6February2018: Parliament adopted a resolution on accelerating clean energy innovation.
  • 12September2017: new rules were adopted to allow neighbouring countries to help each other to manage gas crises, provide for cross-border solidarity and transparency of gas supply contracts.
  • 2March2017: MEPs approved the rules requiring Member States to inform the Commission of their plans to negotiate energy supply deals with third countries before opening negotiations.
  • 25October2016: Parliament supported a resolution for an EU strategy for liquefied natural gas to make energy supplies more secure, cut carbon emissions and deliver affordable prices.
  • 13September2016: Parliament’s resolution entitled ‘Towards a new energy market design’ advocates a combination of liquid short-term markets and long-term price signals, in order to make the market fit for a growing share of renewables and active consumers.
  • 26May2016: Parliament’s resolution on delivering a new deal for energy customers calls for citizens to be empowered to produce, consume, store or trade their own renewable energy, to engage in the energy market and to participate in demand response.

Matteo Ciucci

FAQs

What is the EU internal energy market? ›

The internal market

These measures aim to build a more competitive, customer-centred, flexible and non-discriminatory EU electricity market with market-based supply prices.

What are the five main aims of the EU's energy policy? ›

To reach these objectives, the Energy Union focuses on five mutually supportive dimensions: 1) energy security; 2) the internal energy market; 3) energy efficiency; 4) decarbonisation of the economy; and 5) research, innovation and competitiveness.

What is the legal basis for the EU to regulate the internal market? ›

The Single European Act of 1986 included the objective of establishing the internal market in the European Economic Community (EEC) Treaty, defining it as 'an area without internal frontiers in which the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital is ensured'.

Does the EU have a common energy policy? ›

The energy infrastructure of EU countries is covered by the TEN-E policy, which identifies nine priority corridors (four electricity corridors, four gas corridors and one oil corridor) and three priority thematic areas (smart grids, electricity highways, cross-border carbon dioxide networks) to develop better-connected ...

Is the UK in the EU internal energy market? ›

On 1 January 2021, the UK left the EU's internal energy market. Energy trading through electricity interconnectors between the EU and Great Britain is no longer managed through existing single market tools, such as EU market coupling, as these are reserved for EU countries.

What are the key proposals of the EU energy policy? ›

The proposal is to increase the current EU-level target of at least 32% of renewable energy sources in the overall energy mix to at least 40% by 2030.

What changes does the EU need to make to its energy policy? ›

Key proposals include: A cut of at least 20% in greenhouse gas emissions from all primary energy sources by 2020 (compared to 1990 levels), while pushing for an international agreement to succeed the Kyoto Protocol aimed at achieving a 30% cut by all developed nations by 2020.

How does Europe provide energy? ›

In 2020, the energy mix in the EU, meaning the range of energy sources available, was mainly made up by five different sources: petroleum products (including crude oil) (35 %), natural gas (24 %), renewable energy (17 %), nuclear energy (13 %) and solid fossil fuels (12 %).

Which country has agreed to cooperate with the European Union on energy security? ›

Q. Which country has agreed to cooperate with the European Union on Energy Security? Notes: U.S. President Joe Biden and his European Union counterpart Ursula von der Leyen pledged to cooperate on guaranteeing Europe's energy security.

What is Article 28 of the TFEU? ›

It means that borders are abolished between member countries in relation to the trade of all goods (Article 28 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). Between member countries customs duties, or charges having a similar effect, are forbidden.

What is the meaning of internal market? ›

noun. a system in which goods and services are sold by the provider to a range of purchasers within the same organization, who compete to establish the price of the product.

Why would a company set up internal markets? ›

In principle, an internal market can bring inside a single company the efficiency, flexibility, and motivation of a free market. People can buy and sell to one another based on their self-interests, and the overall result is a continuous reallocation of resources to the places where they are most valuable.

What does energy policy include? ›

The Energy Policy Act (EPA) addresses energy production in the United States, including: (1) energy efficiency; (2) renewable energy; (3) oil and gas; (4) coal; (5) Tribal energy; (6) nuclear matters and security; (7) vehicles and motor fuels, including ethanol; (8) hydrogen; (9) electricity; (10) energy tax incentives ...

What is the EU environmental policy? ›

European environment policy rests on the principles of precaution, prevention and rectifying pollution at source, and on the 'polluter pays' principle. Multiannual environmental action programmes set the framework for future action in all areas of environment policy.

Is the UK still in the IEM? ›

On 1 January 2021, the UK left the European Union (EU) and as such is no longer part of the Internal Energy Market (IEM).

How has Brexit affect the energy market? ›

How does Brexit impact interconnectors? The UK's energy networks remain physically connected to those of the EU. Trade over interconnectors is beneficial to both the UK and the EU, due to the lower costs to consumers of cheaper imports and the additional flexibility which interconnectors provide.

Is Norway in the internal energy market? ›

Norway is part of the EU's internal energy market through the Agreement on the European Economic Area (EEA). Norway is part of the EU's internal energy market through the Agreement on the European Economic Area (EEA).

Has fit for 55 passed? ›

On 14 July, the European Commission passed a crucial milestone by adopting the EU “Fit for 55” package to transform the European economy.

WHO released Fit for 55 Plan? ›

UPSC Mains

Q. “Green Deal: Fit for 55 plan” has been released by which entity? Notes: European Commission, the executive branch of the European Union, has come out with “Green Deal: Fit for 55” plan, which aims to reduce the dependence of Europe on fossil fuels and impose new national limits on emissions.

Is Fit for 55 part of the European Green Deal? ›

The Fit for 55 package, being part of the European Green Deal, is one of the first steps towards achieving this target as it aims to cut emissions by at least 55 % compared to 1990 levels by 2030.

What is causing the European energy crisis? ›

The primary cause of the crisis is a rebound from an economic slowdown during the COVID-19 pandemic. Power generators that had been shut down could not ramp up in time to meet renewed demand, says Jonathan Stern, who studies natural gas at the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.

Why are European energy prices rising? ›

Prices have shot up across Europe since last fall, driven by a spike in demand as countries lifted pandemic lockdowns. Russia's invasion of Ukraine in late February, and the subsequent drop in Moscow's oil and natural gas exports to Europe, have pushed prices even higher.

What is the reason for the energy crisis? ›

Why is there an energy crisis? As countries began to recover from the pandemic, demand for gas started to increase again and could not be met due to a shortage in supply, causing gas prices to increase in 2021.

Who uses the most energy in Europe? ›

Looking at which sectors in the EU consume the most energy, the industry sector (32 % of final energy consumption) consumed the most energy in 2020, followed by the transport sector (26 %), households (25 %), services (12 %) and agriculture & forestry (3 %).

How much of Europe's energy is renewable? ›

At EU level, the share of renewable energy in energy consumption increased steadily from 9.6 % in 2004 to 22.1 % in 2020, thus exceeding the EU target of 20 % renewables by 2020.

Is Europe energy independent? ›

In 2021, the EU imported 58% of its energy from overseas. Despite renewable energy sources becoming Europe's leading source of energy in 2020, the Continent is still deeply reliant on external energy sources, in particular fossil fuels.

Who is supplying LNG to Europe? ›

Russia ships about 150 billion cubic meters of gas to Europe via pipelines every year, and another 14 billion to 18 billion cubic meters of LNG. Combined with Russian LNG, which keeps arriving in Europe except for the UK, the country may still be a bigger overall gas supplier to Europe than the US.

Is Azerbaijan in EU? ›

Until 1991, Azerbaijan was a part of the Soviet Union (USSR). The capital city is Baku and the country shares borders with Russia, Georgia, Armenia, Iran and Turkey. The country is a member of the Council of Europe, but it is not a member of the European Union.

What is Article 30 of the TFEU? ›

Article 30(ex Article 25 TEC)

Customs duties on imports and exports and charges having equivalent effect shall be prohibited between Member States. This prohibition shall also apply to customs duties of a fiscal nature.

What is Article 26 TFEU? ›

Article 26 — (ex Article 14 TEC)

The internal market shall comprise an area without internal frontiers in which the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital is ensured in accordance with the provisions of the Treaties.

What is Article 110 TFEU? ›

Article 110 TFEU prohibits all Member States from imposing on products of the other Member States internal taxation in excess of that imposed on similar domestic products.

Why is internal marketing so important? ›

Brand Awareness: Not only does internal marketing help with developing your organization's brand, but it also boosts brand awareness among employees. This helps employees become brand advocates who publicize your company (both for customers and potential employees) outside of the workplace.

What are components of internal marketing? ›

The Key Components of Internal Marketing

Effective internal communication. Great onboarding experience. Education on the company's products and services. Trust and transparent communication.

What are the types of internal marketing? ›

There are two primary types of internal marketing: Campaign or communications strategy specifically targeting your employees. For example, employee engagement campaigns or benefits/wellness initiatives. Campaigns designed to socialize, educate and involve employees in the launch of an external campaign.

What is the purpose of the EU single market? ›

A single internal market without borders

The EU aims to enable EU citizens to study, live, shop, work and retire in any EU country and enjoy products from all over Europe. To do this, it ensures free movement of goods, services, capital and persons in a single EU internal market.

Which is an important principle for the functioning of the EU common market? ›

The principle of proportionality has now been entrenched in the EU treaties. An action of the Union shall not go beyond what is necessary to achieve the object of the treaty. The principles of free movement of goods, people, services, and capital are central to the common market.

What is the difference between an internal and an external market? ›

external marketing is that your internal marketing audience comprises people with whom you already have relationships. Internal marketing builds from a position of strength and aims to deepen those relationships, rather than casting a net to make new relationships. Other goals differ too.

What are the main features of energy policy? ›

The four key objectives of the new energy policy are access at affordable prices, improved energy security and independence, greater sustainability and economic growth. The policy is being discussed by NITI Aayog with different stake holders.

What is energy policy framework? ›

The National Energy Policy Framework was issued in 2007. It sets out the Government's policies for the planning and management of the energy sector over the following 10 years. The framework defines the strategies that government is taking to ensure that the objectives of the policies are fully realised.

What is the importance of energy policy? ›

Environmental Awareness: National Energy Policy helps in environmental mapping, thereby identifying energy impact due to high consumption, especially with regards to climate change, pollution, extracting natural resources for energy production etc.

What are the 4 environmental principles? ›

EU environmental law and policy is based on four core environmental principles contained in Article 191(2) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU): the precautionary, prevention, rectification at source, and polluter pays principles.

What are some of the major environmental issues in Europe? ›

The data showed that the main environmental problems in Western Europe were: energy production/acid rain, nuclear power/waste, air pollution/climate, heavy metals, pesticides, water pollution, solid waste, and unforeseen accidents. Many environmental problems are common to most European countries.

What are the EU policies on climate change? ›

In December 2020, in light of the EU's commitment to increase its climate ambition in line with the Paris Agreement, EU leaders endorsed a binding EU target for a net domestic reduction of at least 55% in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared to 1990 – a substantial step up from the EU's previous 2030 target of ...

What do you think are the economic benefits of liberalizing the EU energy market who stands to gain the most from liberalization? ›

What do you think are the economic benefits of liberalizing the EU energy market ? Consumers and energy companies should both have benefits: Customers should have more choices of energy providers and have more possibilities to pay less their energy. The energy companies could buy energy from the cheapest source.

What is the clean energy package? ›

What is the Clean Energy Package? The Clean Energy Package adopted in 2019 proposes an adaptation of the European energy policy framework to facilitate the transition away from fossil fuels toward cleaner energy.

Is electricity a good or service EU? ›

(2) Electricity and gas are treated as goods for VAT purposes, and, accordingly, the place of their supply with respect to cross-border transactions has to be determined in accordance with Article 8 of Directive 77/388/EEC.

What is liberalization of energy markets? ›

The liberalization of the energy market means the opening of the electricity and gas market to free competition. This has broken up existing monopolies and opened the market to more participants.

What is Liberalisation in business? ›

Liberalisation in economics means minimising the government's restrictions and regulations in an economy, in return for higher involvement of private organisations. In short, liberalisation means the removal of restrictions in order to promote economic development.

What is the EU fit for 55 package? ›

Fit for 55 is a package by the European Union designed to reduce the European Union's greenhouse gas emissions by 55% by 2030. The package was proposed in July 2021 by the European Commission.

What are the clean sources of energy? ›

ENERGY SOURCES
  • Solar. Learn about the Energy Department's efforts to advance technologies that drive down the cost of solar energy in America.
  • Wind. ...
  • Water. ...
  • Geothermal. ...
  • Bioenergy. ...
  • Nuclear. ...
  • Hydrogen & Fuel Cells.

What is the geothermal energy? ›

Geothermal energy is heat derived within the sub-surface of the earth. Water and/or steam carry the geothermal energy to the Earth's surface. Depending on its characteristics, geothermal energy can be used for heating and cooling purposes or be harnessed to generate clean electricity.

What are the types of energy markets? ›

There are two types of energy market: Regulated and deregulated.

What can replace natural gas? ›

Main types of natural gas substitutes
  • Wind energy. ...
  • Solar energy. ...
  • Hydro energy. ...
  • Geothermal energy. ...
  • Nuclear energy. ...
  • Rooftop solar panels. ...
  • Green hydrogen. ...
  • Heat pumps.

Can natural gas replace electricity? ›

One of these ways is by replacing natural gas with electric heating and cooling systems. This switch from gas to electric power reliance is important for addressing climate change, but it's doubly important because of safety and health concerns in our fire-sensitive region.

The highlight of the September 2022 plenary session was the annual address by the President of the European Commission, Ursula von der Leyen, on the State of the European Union (SOTEU).

Members debated and adopted positions based on two Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE) reports on proposals from the ‘fit for 55’ package (the EU’s plans to achieve climate neutrality by 2050).. Parliament adopted its position on the proposal to revise the Energy Efficiency Directive , by a large majority.. The ITRE report proposes binding national contributions based on Member States’ consumption levels, setting milestones in 2025 and 2027, and targets energy consumption in public buildings.. The committee supports the new 45 % renewable energy sources target, and seeks further innovative renewable energy and storage technology targets, to improve flexibility to cope with peaks in demand.. Members adopted a Committee on Budgets (BUDG) report on the 2021 proposal for a revision of the multiannual financial framework (MFF), setting out the Parliament’s position before the Council formally asks for its consent to the revision.. Parliament adopted a Committee on Constitutional Affairs (AFCO) report on the proposal to revise the rules applicable to European political parties and foundations .. The AFCO report proposes that parties from Council of Europe members that are not EU Member States should be eligible to become European parties, and proposes changes to their financing.. Members adopted a Committee on Foreign Affairs (AFET) report on a renewed partnership with the Southern Neighbourhood , which comes as the effects of Russia’s war on Ukraine are being felt in the region, not least on food security.. Categories: Institutional and Legal Affairs , PUBLICATIONS Tags: At a glance , Clare Ferguson , EP Plenary Session , EP resolution , EU act , EU Democracy , European Parliament , Institutional and Parliamentary Law , Katarzyna Sochacka , parliamentary debate , plenary at a glance , resolution of parliament

Council and European Parliament reach agreement on clear rules for large online platforms

The Council and the Parliament today reached a provisional political agreement on the Digital Markets Act (DMA) , which aims to make the digital sector fairer and more competitive.. The European Union has had to impose record fines over the past 10 years for certain harmful business practices by very large digital players.. It aims to ensure that no large online platform that acts as a ‘gatekeeper’ for a large number of users abuses its position to the detriment of companies wishing to access such users.. Infographic - Digital Markets Act. The platform must also control one or more core platform services in at least three member states .. To make sure that gatekeepers do not undermine the rules set out in the DMA, the regulation also enforces anti-circumvention provisions .. The European Commission presented a digital services package comprising the Digital Services Act (DSA) and a Digital Markets Act (DMA) in December 2020.. The provisional agreement reached today is subject to approval by the Council and the European Parliament.

After our timely advocacy actions with over 70 organisations, the amendments to the IMCO - LIBE Committee Report for the Artificial Intelligence Act clearly state the need for a ban on Remote Biometric Identification. In fact, 24 individual MEPs representing 158 MEPs, demand a complete ban on biometric mass surveillance practices. Now we need to keep up the pressure at European and national levels to ensure that when the AI Act is officially passed, likely in 2023 or 2024, it bans biometric mass surveillance.

Among those calling for the most comprehensive form of a ban – which Reclaim Your Face has argued is necessary to protect people’s rights and freedoms – is MEP Brando Benifei from the S&D group.. Mr Benifei is one of two MEPs who share the ultimate responsibility for the Parliament’s position on the AI Act, so his support for a full ban is very powerful and meaningful.. The fight is still far from over.. Whilst RBI in publicly-accessible spaces is a major part of biometric mass surveillance, practices such as biometric categorisation and emotion recognition (making predictions about people’s ethnicity, gender, emotions or other characteristics based on how they look or act) can also lead to biometric mass surveillance.. That’s why we are also advocating for strong bans on both practices in the AI Act – which we are pleased to see have been put forward by several MEPs.. There is also a lot left to go in the political process.. Only then will negotiations begin with the member state governments (Council), where more permissive home affairs ministers have clashed with more rights-protective justice ministers over whether to weaken or strengthen the RBI ban.. This emphasises why now, more than ever, we need to keep up the pressure at European and national levels to ensure that – when the AI Act is officiallypassed, likelyin 2023 or 2024 – it bans biometric mass surveillance!

The European Parliament no longer considers Hungary a full-fledged democracy and recognizes it as an "electoral autocracy" due to the actions of the Hungarian government and its prime minister, Viktor Orbán, the EU Parliament declared in a statement issued on Sept. 15.

Members of the European Parliament voted for a document that recognizes that Hungary can no longer be considered a democracy.. This decision was supported by 433 votes.. Another 123 MEPs voted against the declaration, and 28 abstained.. MEPs call on the European Commission to make full use of all the tools at its disposal and, in particular, the regulation of funding for Hungary.. The lawsuit also names three of Donald Trump's children: Donald Trump Jr., Ivanka Trump, and Eric Trump.. Former President Trump responded Wednesday to Russian President Vladimir Putin’s hinting at being willing to use nuclear weapons in Ukraine, saying that the conflict should never have happened and that it could lead to a world war.. KIRILL KUDRYAVTSEV/AFP via Getty ImagesVladimir Putin’s defense minister sent a clear message to the people of Russia on Wednesday: Their country is at war not just with Ukraine, but with the entirety of the West.“I cannot but emphasize the fact that today, we are at war not so much with Ukraine and the Ukrainian army as with the collective West,” Sergei Shoigu said in a televised speech, according to TASS.“At this point, we are really at war with the collective West, with NATO,” Shoigu added.Sh. NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg said Russian President Vladimir Putin has miscalculated his strategy in the war with Ukraine following Putin’s announcement that he is mobilizing 300,000 new troops to the country.. Recently, Governor DeSantis made headlines when he send two planes with 50 Venezuelan migrants to Martha’s Vineyard unannounced.. Ron DeSantis attempted to dismiss accusations that he engaged in a stunt when he flew about 50 migrants to Martha’s Vineyard last week, instead claiming that President Joe Biden engaged in “the biggest stunt” by not going along with his predecessor’s immigration policies.While some have accused the governor of “political human trafficking,” Sean Hannity helped DeSantis portray his actions as acceptable to the public at large and welcomed by the migra. Now Priscilla recalling that things had gotten very scary in their home, and the details aren't easy to read.. Reports that Florida Gov.

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