ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool for Children (ICAST-C): Translation and adaptation to Mexican Spanish, and psychometric properties tested in Mexico City adolescents (2022)

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Article preview Abstract Background Participants and setting Methods Results Conclusions Introduction Section snippets Design Phase 1. Translation and adaptation of the instrument Distribution Discussion Submission declaration and verification Funding Authors' contributions Declaration of competing interest Acknowledgements References (38) Child Abuse & Neglect Child Abuse & Neglect Child Abuse & Neglect Child Abuse & Neglect Children and Youth Services Review. Child Abuse & Neglect Panorama estadístico de la violencia contra niñas niños y adolescentes en México Developmental science in the 21st century: Emerging questions, theoretical models, research designs and empirical findings Social Development Authentic assessment: Using assessment to help students learn Relieve Castigos en la crianza de los hijos e hijas: Un estado de la cuestión Revista Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Niñez y Juventud Identificación de los conceptos culturalmente relevantes que niños mexicanos asocian con maltrato infantil, pre-propuesta para una herramienta de tamizaje. Tesis de Maestría Students' personal traits, violence exposure, family factors, school dynamics and the perpetration of violence in Taiwanese elementary schools Health Education Research Pautas éticas internacionales para la investigación relacionada con la salud con seres humanos Validity and reliability update of the Indonesian version of International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect - Child Abuse Screening Tool (ICAST-C) Paediatrica Indonesiana Measurement and the study of change Research in Human Development Score test for zero inflated generalized Poisson regression model Communications in Statistics: Theory and Methods International test commission guidelines for test adaptation: A criterion checklist Psicothema Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives Structural Equation Modeling Ethical considerations for the collection, analysis & publication of child maltreatment data Cited by (0) Recommended articles (6)
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Volume 133,

November 2022

, 105826

Author links open overlay panelAbigailCasas-MuñozPhDaPersonEnvelopeÁngel EduardoVelasco-RojanoPsyDaNoéGonzález-GarcíaPsyDaCorinaBenjetPsyDbJorge JavierCaraveo-AnduagaPhDbNora AngélicaMartínez-VélezbArturoLoredo-AbdaláMDa

Abstract

Background

Research using the IPSCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool for Children (ICAST-C), has provided ample evidence of the magnitude of violence against children. Knowledge about its psychometric characteristics and validity is limited. Hence, our objective was to translate and culturally adapt the ICAST-C in adolescents from Mexico City and determine its psychometric properties.

Participants and setting

To determine the psychometric properties of the instrument 723 adolescents between 11 and 18years of age from 9 public secondary schools in Mexico City participated.

Methods

The study was carried out in two phases: 1) translation and adaptation of the instrument (in 5 steps) and 2) pilot evaluation of the psychometric properties. Total and factor reliabilities were determined, Pearson correlation was used for temporal stability while construct validity was determined by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), and final adequacy of the items eliminated by the CFA.

Results

We developed the culturally relevant Mexican Spanish version of the ICAST-C. The CFA confirmed the six-factor structure hypothesis. To improve the original model we eliminated ten items, the final model showed good global fit indices (χ2(1310)=2207.68, p<.01, χ2/df=1.68; CFI =0.95; RMSEA=0.02 [CI95% 0.02–0.03]; SRMR=0.08). Total and factor reliabilities were adequate (Alpha=0.79–0.92, r=0.52–0.75), except for the non-violent discipline factor (Alpha=0.59, r=0.38).

Conclusions

While these data suggest that this version of the ICAST-C is valid and reliable for adolescents in Mexico City public secondary schools, further research should evaluate the psychometric properties in a national sample.

Introduction

Violence against children is a problem that affects all countries in the world, independent of culture, social class, educational and income levels, or ethnic origin (Pinheiro, 2006). Evaluation of violence against children has raised methodological and ethical challenges. These challenges are related to conceptual and operational differences, which in turn influence the available indicators and evidence on the magnitude and impact of this problem around the world (Runyan et al., 2009). The scarcity of the available data to estimate the prevalence of different types of violence throughout the world (Zolotor et al., 2009), is related to problems of detection and with official records of experiences of violence. Most official reports consider only more severe cases; thus, compromising the registration of subtle cases. This is because many of the criteria to determine the magnitude of the problem normalize violence as punishment or discipline (Álvarez-Gutiérrez & Castillo-Koschnick, 2019; Carrillo-Urrego, 2018). The importance of data quality transcends the public policies and programs that are established to prioritize, guarantee and protect children's rights (World Health Organization, 2020). Based on the above, the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) has taken the initiative to improve the approach, measurement and evaluation of violence towards children, and this was recommended by the General Assembly and Secretary General of the United Nations Organization in the World Report on violence against children (Pinheiro, 2006). To assess, compare and gain a better understanding of children's and adolescents´ exposure to violence internationally, a panel of child abuse experts developed and tested the feasibility of using the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool for Children Questionnaire (ICAST-C) in children from forty countries (Zolotor et al., 2009).

While research using the ICAST-C, in its different versions, has provided ample evidence of the problem of violence towards children around the world, knowledge about its psychometric characteristics and validity is limited. Zolotor et al. (2009) reported feasibility evidence documented in 14 countries. In addition, Silveira and Grassi-Oliveira (2016) in Brazil, reported the semantic validation process of the Questionnaire into Portuguese. Dhamayanti et al. (2020) in Indonesia tested the factor reliability and the item correlations. In Sri Lanka, Chandraratne et al. (2018) reported evidence of construct validity, demonstrated with principal component analysis; two confirmatory factor analyses were promising — one carried out in the Balkans with adequate fit (Meinck et al., 2020), and the other in Taiwan with acceptable results (Chang et al., 2013) — although some fit indices were below the recommended cutoff points. Finally, in South Africa, Meinck et al. (2018) adapted a brief version for clinical interventions known as ICAST-Trial, which has adequate fit in the confirmatory factor analysis, but with non-optimal adjustment in all indices (CFI 0.925 and TLI 0.908) (Hu & Bentler, 1999).

Currently, the available information on violence against children in Mexico is fragmented and limited, precluding an accurate and complete assessment and surveillance of the problem. A first step for such assessment is having a culturally validated and reliable screening tool. Such a tool, and the information derived from it, is essential to design more effective public policies to protect children (Álvarez-Gutiérrez & Castillo-Koschnick, 2019). Therefore, the objective of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the ICAST-C screening tool for violence against children in Mexico City and to determine its psychometric properties.

Section snippets

Design

We conducted an observational, longitudinal study in two phases as follows (Fig. 1): 1) Translation and adaptation of the instrument and 2) Pilot evaluation of the psychometric properties of the translated and adapted instrument. The Spanish adaptation versions can be reviewed in Appendix A (supplementary material).

Phase 1. Translation and adaptation of the instrument

We first obtained permission from ISPCAN to translate and adapt the original English version of ICAST-C V 3.0 to Mexican Spanish and to evaluate the reliability and validity of this

Distribution

The frequency distribution of the responses showed that there were options endorsed with very low or null frequency. Therefore, we recoded the responses into three options: 0 (It has never happened to me), 1 (Yes, it happened to me, but before), 2 (It happened to me in the past year). When examining the frequency per option, the asymmetry coefficient, the kurtosis, and the normality tests of the recoded items, they were not normally distributed, neither individually nor as a whole (Mardia

Discussion

We provide novel evidence for the reliability and validity of a multidimensional Mexican-Spanish self-report scale for measuring experiences of violence in adolescents. A particular strength is that we translated and adapted the ICAST-C instrument, which has been used and evaluated in other languages and countries, thus permitting comparisons between countries and cultural contexts.

The confirmatory factor analysis of this Mexican Spanish version is the first one to corroborate the six

Submission declaration and verification

The work described has not been previously published. It is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out. If accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright holder.

Funding

This work was supported for the conduct of the research by the National Pediatrics Institute (Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, México) through the Fiscal Resource Fund of the E022 Program.

Authors' contributions

ACM and NGG conceptualized the present study. ACM, NGG, CB, JJCA and ALA participated in the translation and adaptation process. ACM and NGG managed the data collection. ACM, NGG and AEVR had the responsibility for conceptualizing and writing the paper. AEVR led and conducted the analyses with the support of ACM, NGG, NMV, JJCA and CB. All contributed in the interpretation of the findings and structure of the paper. All authors reviewed and approved the final version.

Declaration of competing interest

None.

Acknowledgements

We thank the social service interns María Teresa Arias González, Víctor Alam Gaona Badillo, Óscar Pérez Toscano, and CIELO staff for their support during the applications of the instrument. Our thanks also go to Dr. Franziska Meinck, who kindly shared the ICAS-T version applied in South Africa and some of her experience and guidance with the adaptation process.

We thank CONACYT (CV166938) and the Doctorate program in Medical, Dental and Health Sciences, recognized by the CONACYT National Quality

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