New Insights Into Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria (2022)

What Is Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria?

Rejection sensitive dysphoria is not a formal diagnosis, but rather one of the most common and disruptive manifestations of emotional dysregulation — a common but under-researched and oft-misunderstood symptom of ADHD, particularly in adults. Rejection sensitive dysphoria is a brain-based symptom that is likely an innate feature of ADHD. Though the experience of rejection sensitive dysphoria can be painful and even traumatic, RSD is not thought to be caused by trauma.

Dysphoria is the Greek word meaning unbearable; its use emphasizes the severe physical and emotional pain suffered by people with RSD when they encounter real or perceived rejection, criticism, or teasing. The emotional intensity of RSD is described by my patients as a wound. The response is well beyond all proportion to the nature of the event that triggered it.

One-third of my adult patients report that RSD was the most impairing aspect of their personal experience of ADHD, in part because they never found any effective ways to manage or cope with the pain.

What Triggers Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria?

Sometimes called hysteroid dysphoria in Europe, rejection sensitive dysphoria is characterized by intense mood shifts triggered by a distinct episode, typically one of the following:

  • rejection (the real or perceived withdrawal of love, approval, or respect)
  • teasing
  • criticism, no matter how constructive
  • persistent self-criticism or negative self-talk prompted by a real or perceived failure

The new mood sweeps in immediately and it matches the individual’s perception of the trigger. If these triggered emotions are internalized, the person can instantaneously appear as if they have a full Major Mood Disorder syndrome complete with suicidal thinking. If the feelings are externalized, they are commonly expressed as a rage at the person or situation that wounded them so severely. The moods return to normal very quickly so that a person with ADHD can have multiple episodes of mood dysregulation in a single day.

[Self-Test: Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria in Adults]

Many people with RSD say it’s always been a part of their lives, however some report growing significantly more sensitive in adolescence.

What Are the Outward Signs of Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria?

Individuals suffering from rejection sensitive dysphoria may exhibit the following behaviors:

(Video) An ADHD Guide to Emotional Dysregulation and Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria (w/ William Dodson, M.D.)

  • Sudden emotional outbursts following real or perceived criticism or rejection
  • Withdrawal from social situations
  • Negative self-talk and thoughts of self-harm
  • Avoidance of social settings in which they might fail or be criticized (for this reason, RSD is often hard to distinguish from Social Anxiety Disorder)
  • Low self-esteem and poor self-perception
  • Constant harsh and negative self-talk that leads them to become “their own worst enemy”
  • Rumination and perseveration
  • Relationship problems, especially feeling constantly attacked and responding defensively

What Does Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria Feel Like?

The excruciating pain of RSD is often beyond description. Patients describe the intensity of RSD as “awful,” “terrible,” “catastrophic,” or “devastating,” but they cannot verbalize the quality of the emotional experience.

[Watch This: The Emotional Dysregulation of ADHD]

No one likes to be rejected, criticized, or to be seen as a failure. It is unpleasant, so people avoid those situations if they can. RSD is distinguished by its extreme, unbearable intensity, which sets it apart from normal emotional responses familiar to people who are neurotypical.

This intense pain is often experienced as a physical “wound;” the patient feels as if they were stabbed or punched in the chest. Commonly, people will hunch over, grimace, and clutch their chests when they describe their RSD experience.

How Is Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria Different from a Mood Disorder?

RSD is characterized by intense but short-lived emotional pain triggered by a distinct event of real or perceived rejection, criticism, or teasing. Mood disorders, on the other hand, are characterized by the following:

Mood DisorderRSD and ADHD
Mood changes are untriggered; out of the blueMood changes always have a clear trigger
Moods are independent of what is going on in the person’s lifeMoods match the perception of the trigger
Mood shift is gradual over weeksMood shift is instantaneous
Offset of mood episode is gradual over a period of weeks to monthsEpisodes end quickly in a matter of hours
Duration of episode must be > 2 weeksEpisodes rarely last more than a couple of hours.

In other words, the moods of ADHD and RSD are normal in every way except their intensity.

Is Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria a Symptom of ADHD?

Rejection sensitive dysphoria is not included in the DSM-V for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or ADD); it is not a formal symptom of ADHD in the United States, however emotional dysregulation is one of the six fundamental features used to diagnose ADHD in the European Union.

(Video) ADHD | Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria 😩

It’s widely understood that the diagnostic criteria for ADHD in the DSM-V only fit well with elementary school age children (6-12) and have never been validated in a group of people over the age of 16.1 They are based on only observational or behavioral criteria that can be seen and counted. The traditional diagnostic criteria intentionally avoid symptoms associated with emotion, thinking styles, relationships, sleeping, etc. because these features are hard to quantify. For clinicians who work with later adolescents and adults, the DSM-V criteria are almost useless because they ignore so much which is vital to understanding how people with an ADHD nervous system experience their lives.

When people started writing and researching the concepts of RSD and emotional dysregulation about 5 years ago, this new awareness of the emotional component of ADHD was enthusiastically accepted by patients and their families because they matched their life experiences so exactly. The reception from clinicians and many researchers, however, was decidedly cool. Many professionals did not fully grasp that the emotional component of ADHD had always been there but intentionally not pursued. It appeared to them that the concept had no real and historical basis. What’s more, there was very little published research just 5 years ago and most studies came from the European Union, which used the term emotional dysregulation (ED), not RSD.2

These obstacles to recognizing RSD/ED as a major and defining characteristic of adult ADHD and to using medications to offer some relief from the disruptions and pain of this feature of ADHD are being rapidly addressed. There has been a rapid increase in available research in a very short period of time.3 The redefinition of adult ADHD in the EU — adding emotional self-regulation as a fundamental part of the criteria for the diagnosis of ADHD — has furher assured that RSD/ED is really “a thing” that cannot be ignored any longer.

Still, there are at least three reasons why emotional dysregulation or RSD may never be included in the diagnostic criteria for ADHD, no matter how prevalent:

  1. RSD/ED are not always present. It comes in triggered episodes.
  2. People with RSD/ED are usually ashamed of their over-reactions and hide them so that they will not be further embarrassed and thought of as mentally or emotionally unstable
  3. Even when RSD/ED is present, it can’t be measured, and, therefore, can’t get published in research.

As a consequence, emotional dysregulation was consciously excluded from the diagnostic criteria for ADHD and effectively forgotten for many years. Over the last decade, researchers have developed several new ways of looking at ADHD through the lifecycle. By the end of 2019, this re-evaluation of the very fundamental aspects of ADHD led the European Union to issue its 10-year update of the Consensus Guidelines on Adult ADHD4, which redefined adolescent and adult ADHD to include difficulty with emotional regulation as one of only six fundamental features in the ADHD syndrome:

  1. inattention and hyperfocus
  2. impulsivity
  3. hyperactivity
  4. emotional dysregulation
  5. excessive mind wandering
  6. behavioral self-regulation (which they equated with executive function deficits)

Although the EU has chosen the more inclusive term of emotional dysregulation (ED) instead of RSD, the concepts are fundamentally the same. Emotional dysregulation is described as:

“The type of emotional dysregulation seen in ADHD has been characterized as deficient self-regulation of emotional symptoms such as irritability, frustration and angerand low frustration tolerance, temper outbursts, emotional impulsivity, and mood lability.5Emotional dysregulation in ADHD is different from episodic symptoms such as marked sustained irritability occurring within the context of altered mood states, such as an episode of extreme sadness or mania. In ADHD, emotional symptoms tend to reflect short-lived exaggerated changes, often in response to daily events, with rapid return to baseline within a few hours”.6

Is Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria a New Concept?

Rejection sensitive dysphoria and emotional dysregulation are old concepts associated with ADHD that are gaining new exposure in research and clinical settings. Dr. Paul Wender, who spent four decades conducting the pioneering studies on ADHD beginning in the 1960s, was the first to recognize emotional dysregulation as a persistent, prevalent, and highly impairing component of what we now call ADHD.

(Video) How to Deal with Rejection Sensitivity

The most recent contribution to this new thinking about the mood regulation component of ADHD comes from Dr. Fred Reimherr, one of the founding fathers of ADHD who established the current childhood criteria for ADHD along with Wender more than 50 years ago (the original criteria for what we now call ADHD were originally called the Wender-Reimherr Criteria). His recent replication7 of his study of the validity of each diagnostic criterion has led him to now conceptualize ADHD as being divided into only two subtypes: the well-known inattentive type and an emotional dysregulation type.

This is a huge change in thinking. A feature of ADHD that was ignored for 50 years now is rapidly becoming one of the defining features of the syndrome in both the European Union and North America.

In 2019, Faraone published “Emotional dysregulation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder – implications for clinical recognition and interventions” in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.8 It states that there is “solid theoretical rational” for emotional impulsivity and deficient emotional self-regulation “as core symptoms of ADHD.”

How is Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria Treated?

Although the alpha agonist medications, guanfacine and clonidine, have been FDA-approved for the treatment of ADHD for decades, they were not directly associated with the terms of rejection sensitivity and emotional dysregulation for all of the reasons noted above. Nonetheless, it has been my clinical experience and the experience of others that the symptoms of RSD/ED can be significantly relieved with clonidine and guanfacine in about 60% of adolescents and adults. To me, this observation strongly indicates that RSD is neurological and not something that is due to a lack of skills. Skills do not come in pill form.

There currently exists no formal research on using alpha agonist medications to treat symptoms of RSD or ED on patients with ADHD.

If a patient benefits from an alpha agonist medication, they describe the new experience as one of “putting on emotional armor.” They still see the same things happening that would have emotionally devastated them last week, but now on medication they just watch these triggers fly past them “without being wounded.” Often people report that, with time, they come to realize that this armor is not needed after all “because I came to see that the arrows I was protected from were not arrows to begin with.” They are very clear, however, that they would never have developed this emotional control unless they had had some initial protection from the pain of RSD.

If a patient does not benefit from medication, they have little control over an episode of RSD once it begins. The incidents have to run their course. Some people with ADHD, however, report that getting interested in something new and fascinating can help to end an RSD episode more quickly than it would otherwise. In my clinical experience, neither coaching nor traditional psychological or behavioral therapies — like CBT or DBT — offer any prevention or relief from impairments. Nonetheless, many people report that it is very helpful for them to know that this highly disruptive experience is real, common, and shared by other people with ADHD. “It helps me to know what is happening to me and that it is ultimately going to end.”

Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria: Next Steps

  • Read: ADHD, Women, and the Danger of Emotional Withdrawal
  • Download: Understanding ADHD and Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria
  • Understand: How to Distinguish ADHD’s Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria from Other Disorders

References

1 Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. AACAP Official Action. (2007). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 46 (7):894-921. This article is in the public domain and can be accessed at
http://www.aacap.org/galleries/PracticeParameters/JAACAP_ADHD_2007.pdf

(Video) What is Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria?

2 Kooij Sandra JJ, et al. European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: The European Network Adult ADHD. BioMedCentral – Psychiatry (2010), 10:67. Pages 1-24. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-244X/10/67

3 Graham J, Banaschewski T, Buitelaar J, Coghill D, Danckaerts M, Dittmann RW, et al. European guidelines on managing adverse effects of medication for ADHD. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (2011) 20:17–37. DOI 10.1007/s00787-010-0140-6

4 Kooij J.J.S., Bijlenga D, Salerno L, Jaeschke R, Bitter I, Balázs J, Thome J, Dom G, Kasper S, Nunes C, Filipe S.Stes. Mohr P, Leppämäki S, Casas M, Bobes J, Mccarthy JM, V.Richarte, Philipsen AK, et al. Updated European Consensus Statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD. (2019) European Psychiatry 56: 14–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2018.11.001

5 Skirrow C, Asherson P. Emotional lability, comorbidity and impairment in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, (2013);147 (1-3):80–6. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23218897/

6 Surman CB, Biederman J, Spencer T, Miller CA, McDermott KM, Faraone SV. Understanding deficient emotional self-regulation in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a controlled study. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders2013;5(3):273–81. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23413201/

7 Reimherr FW, Roesler M, Marchant BK, et al, Types of adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Replication Analysis. (2020) Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 81 (2) e1-e7.

8 Faraone SV, Rostain A, Blader J, et al. Practitioner Review: Emotional dysregulation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder – implications for clinical recognition and interventions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (2019) 60(2): 133-150.

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(Video) ADHD & Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria: The Pain of Criticism

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FAQs

Can you overcome rejection sensitive dysphoria? ›

Psychotherapy (also known as mental health therapy) can help people with RSD. Therapy doesn't stop RSD from happening or affect the symptoms. Instead, therapy can help a person learn how to process and manage feelings so they're less overwhelming. That can help a person with RSD feel more in control of their emotions.

What triggers rejection sensitive dysphoria? ›

Rejection sensitive dysphoria (RSD) is extreme emotional sensitivity and pain triggered by the perception that a person has been rejected or criticized by important people in their life. It may also be triggered by a sense of falling short—failing to meet their own high standards or others' expectations.

How do you comfort someone with rejection sensitive dysphoria? ›

Acknowledging their work, acknowledging their positive efforts and rewarding activities really helps them feel more confident. It can also help them see things from a new perspective and shift from negative self-talk about rejection. This can encourage them to approach future situations bravely as well.

Does Adderall Help rejection sensitive dysphoria? ›

ADHD medications: Ritalin (Ritalin) and dextroamphetamine-amphetamine (Adderall) are particularly successful in controlling the basic symptoms of ADHD. They may also aid in the treatment of RSD.

Can you have RSD without ADHD? ›

Is RSD exclusive to ADHD? No. Rejection sensitive dysphoria isn't exclusively associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or any other condition. Anyone can experience RSD.

Is RSD a mental illness? ›

This is sometimes called rejection sensitive dysphoria (RSD), which is not a medical diagnosis, but a way of describing certain symptoms associated with ADHD. "Dysphoria" comes from a Greek word that means “hard to bear." People who have RSD don't handle rejection well.

What mental illnesses have rejection sensitive dysphoria? ›

Symptoms of RSD

social phobia. bipolar disorder. borderline personality disorder. post-traumatic stress disorder.

Do people with BPD have RSD? ›

Abstract. Objective: People with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) may experience heightened rejection sensitivity (RS), a disposition developing from repeated childhood rejecting experiences. It is not known whether the full RS model accounts for the cognitive-affective experiences common in BPD.

What does RSD look like ADHD? ›

How Is Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria Different from a Mood Disorder?
Mood DisorderRSD and ADHD
Moods are independent of what is going on in the person's lifeMoods match the perception of the trigger
Mood shift is gradual over weeksMood shift is instantaneous
3 more rows
11 Jul 2022

Does Wellbutrin help with rejection sensitive dysphoria? ›

Treatments for RSD

In her practice, Clements has also seen other medications — such as bupropion (Wellbutrin) — reduce the intensity of RSD. Both Clements and Schwartz believe that RSD is a trauma response.

What medication helps with RSD? ›

There are two main types of medication that can ease the symptoms of RSD. Medications such as Guanfacine (Intuniv) and clonidine (Kapvay) are drugs that lower blood pressure. However, they have also proven effective in helping with the symptoms of Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria.

How do I stop caring about rejection? ›

Here are some tips to get you started.
  1. Remember that it happens to everyone. ...
  2. Validate your feelings. ...
  3. Look for the learning opportunity. ...
  4. Remind yourself of your worth. ...
  5. Keep things in perspective. ...
  6. Figure out what really scares you about rejection. ...
  7. Face your fear. ...
  8. Reject negative self-talk.
11 Dec 2019

Why can't I put my thoughts into words ADHD? ›

ADHD challenges with working memory, long-term memory, processing speed, emotional regulation and distractions can make it difficult for you to organize your thoughts into words.

Why do I get triggered by rejection? ›

Rejection sensitivity isn't caused by one single factor. Instead, there may be many factors at play. Some possible causes include childhood experiences like critical parents and bullying, along with biological factors and genetics.

Does RSD go away? ›

For most people with RSDS symptoms will go away over time, but sometimes symptoms spread away from the initial site and affect a whole limb or even the whole body. In rare cases, the pain, skin changes and motor symptoms can persist for years and become debilitating.

How do you test for RSD? ›

Other diagnosis tools health care professionals use to diagnose CRPS/RSD include:
  • bone scans and x-rays to identify early bone deformities from CRPS/RSD.
  • skin sensitivity tests.
  • thermography to measures changes in blood supply and skin temperature.
  • nerve conduction studies to observe nerve behavior.
18 Nov 2015

What are the stages of RSD? ›

What Are the Three Stages of Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy?
  • Stage 1 – Acute – Early signs and symptoms appear, including burning pain and increased sensitivity to touch. ...
  • Stage 2 – Dystrophic – Swelling increases and wrinkles in the skin vanish. ...
  • Stage 3 – Atrophic – Skin becomes dry and shiny, and swelling is pronounced.

What is RSD perfectionism? ›

2. Perfectionism and/or Extreme Fear of Failure. Although perfectionism is sometimes viewed as a positive trait (at least in small doses), for individuals with RSD, it's more likely to be detrimental. RSD perfectionism is characterized by unrealistic expectations of self and others.

How do you treat rejection trauma? ›

How to Recover from Rejection
  1. Allow yourself to feel. Rather than suppressing all the emotions that come with rejection, allow yourself to feel and process them. ...
  2. Spend time with people who accept you. Surround yourself with people who love you and accept you. ...
  3. Practice self love and self care.
13 Nov 2018

What is an RSD episode? ›

RSD is an overwhelming emotional sensation that a person may experience in response to an actual or perceived rejection or criticism. It is a serious condition that can result in low mood and self-esteem and is not a person being overly sensitive.

Does Adderall help BPD? ›

Adderall often worsens many symptoms of BPD, including emotional dysregulation. Because people with BPD are at increased risk for developing substance use disorders, they have a greater chance of developing Adderall addiction.

What mimics borderline personality? ›

The symptoms of BPD are very broad, and some can be similar to or overlap with other mental health problems, such as: Bipolar disorder. Complex post-traumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD) Depression.

Is BPD worse than ADHD? ›

While adult ADHD and BPD share some genetic and temperamental risk factors, adult ADHD is characterized by more severe trait-impulsivity compared to non-comorbid BPD; BPD patients display more severe trait-emotion regulation symptoms compared to non-comorbid ADHD.

What rejection sensitivity feels like? ›

Rejection Sensitivity is extreme emotional sensitivity and pain triggered by perceived failure, perceived rejection, projection of possible failure, or criticism. When you have rejection sensitivity you feel tremendous pain, anger, or depression in the face of rejection, failure, or criticism.

How long do RSD episodes last? ›

How Is Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria Different from a Mood Disorder?
Mood DisorderRSD and ADHD
Offset of mood episode is gradual over a period of weeks to monthsEpisodes end quickly in a matter of hours
Duration of episode must be > 2 weeksEpisodes rarely last more than a couple of hours.
3 more rows
11 Jul 2022

How do you recover from rejection trauma? ›

How to Recover from Rejection
  1. Allow yourself to feel. Rather than suppressing all the emotions that come with rejection, allow yourself to feel and process them. ...
  2. Spend time with people who accept you. Surround yourself with people who love you and accept you. ...
  3. Practice self love and self care.
13 Nov 2018

Do people with BPD have RSD? ›

Abstract. Objective: People with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) may experience heightened rejection sensitivity (RS), a disposition developing from repeated childhood rejecting experiences. It is not known whether the full RS model accounts for the cognitive-affective experiences common in BPD.

How do you treat childhood rejection trauma? ›

7 Ways to Heal Your Childhood Trauma
  1. Acknowledge and recognize the trauma for what it is. ...
  2. Reclaim control. ...
  3. Seek support and don't isolate yourself. ...
  4. Take care of your health. ...
  5. Learn the true meaning of acceptance and letting go. ...
  6. Replace bad habits with good ones. ...
  7. Be patient with yourself.
17 Jul 2009

Is RSD social anxiety? ›

RSD is often mistaken for social anxiety, since both involve a fear of rejection. However, social anxiety generally happens before the experience, not after.

Do stimulants help with RSD? ›

ADHD medications: ADHD medications, such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) and dextroamphetamine-amphetamine (Adderall), are highly effective in managing the core symptoms of ADHD. They may also help with RSD.

Can you have social anxiety and rejection sensitive dysphoria? ›

RSD and Social Anxiety

Adults with ADHD and RSD struggle to shake the feelings of exclusion. They may believe that people don't want them around. Negative views of self not only cause anxiety but a chronic avoidance of relationships for the fear of being unwanted.

What becomes of a child who experienced rejection early on in life? ›

“Rejected children often grow up to experience difficult self-relationships, including self-doubt, self-neglect, self-sabotage, and self-hate,” says Stephani Jahn, PhD, a licensed mental health counselor in Earleton, Florida.

What does constant rejection do to a person? ›

Social rejection increases anger, anxiety, depression, jealousy and sadness. It reduces performance on difficult intellectual tasks, and can also contribute to aggression and poor impulse control, as DeWall explains in a recent review (Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2011).

How do you love someone with rejection trauma? ›

Someone with abandonment issues can be especially difficult to deal with in a relationship.
  1. Cultivate Open Communication. ...
  2. Don't Pressure Them. ...
  3. Don't Engage in Faulty Arguments. ...
  4. Understand That It's About Them. ...
  5. Don't Enable Unhealthy Behaviors. ...
  6. Understand Why They're Pulling Away. ...
  7. Remember That You Don't Need to Fix Them.
22 Jun 2020

Does Adderall help BPD? ›

Adderall often worsens many symptoms of BPD, including emotional dysregulation. Because people with BPD are at increased risk for developing substance use disorders, they have a greater chance of developing Adderall addiction.

What mimics borderline personality? ›

The symptoms of BPD are very broad, and some can be similar to or overlap with other mental health problems, such as: Bipolar disorder. Complex post-traumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD) Depression.

Is BPD worse than ADHD? ›

While adult ADHD and BPD share some genetic and temperamental risk factors, adult ADHD is characterized by more severe trait-impulsivity compared to non-comorbid BPD; BPD patients display more severe trait-emotion regulation symptoms compared to non-comorbid ADHD.

What is cold mother syndrome? ›

Emotionally absent or cold mothers can be unresponsive to their children's needs. They may act distracted and uninterested during interactions, or they could actively reject any attempts of the child to get close. They may continue acting this way with adult children.

Do I have abandonment trauma? ›

Fear of being left behind or abandoned. Inability to form healthy relationships in the teenage or adult years. Low self-esteem and feelings of self-worth. Anxiety and insecurity.

How do you heal rejection and abandonment trauma? ›

How to Heal from Abandonment Issues
  1. 1) Own the story. “First, recognize and name what happened to you: 'I got left. ...
  2. 2) Identify and feel your feelings. ...
  3. 3) Find a healthy outlet for expression. ...
  4. 4) Recognize that you are not the problem. ...
  5. 5) Be willing to ask for help.
2 Apr 2018

Videos

1. ADHD - What Is Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria?
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2. Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria (ADHD)
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3. Rejection Sensitivity: Ben educates Aucademy
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4. Flip Side of Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria: ADHD Energy and Motivation (w/ Drs. Hallowell & Ratey)
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5. ADHD and Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria
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6. Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria - Why am I so sensitive? (ADHD symptoms)
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