Resolution Example and Exercises (2022)

Resolution Example and Exercises

Solutions to Selected Problems

Example:

Consider the following axioms:

  1. All hounds howl at night.
  2. Anyone who has any cats will not have any mice.
  3. Light sleepers do not have anything which howls at night.
  4. John has either a cat or a hound.
  5. (Conclusion) If John is a light sleeper, then John does nothave any mice.

The conclusion can be proved using Resolution as shown below. The firststep is to write each axiom as a well-formed formula in first-orderpredicate calculus. The clauses written for the above axioms are shownbelow, using LS(x) for `light sleeper'.

  1. ∀ x (HOUND(x) → HOWL(x))
  2. ∀ x ∀ y (HAVE (x,y) ∧ CAT (y) → ¬ ∃ z (HAVE(x,z) ∧ MOUSE (z)))
  3. ∀ x (LS(x) → ¬ ∃ y (HAVE (x,y) ∧ HOWL(y)))
  4. ∃ x (HAVE (John,x) ∧ (CAT(x) ∨ HOUND(x)))
  5. LS(John) → ¬ ∃ z (HAVE(John,z) ∧ MOUSE(z))

The next step is to transform each wff into Prenex Normal Form, skolemize,and rewrite as clauses in conjunctive normal form; these transformationsare shown below.

  1. ∀ x (HOUND(x) → HOWL(x))

    ¬ HOUND(x) ∨ HOWL(x)

  2. ∀ x ∀ y (HAVE (x,y) ∧ CAT (y) →¬ ∃ z (HAVE(x,z) ∧ MOUSE (z)))

    ∀ x ∀ y (HAVE (x,y) ∧ CAT (y) →∀ z ¬ (HAVE(x,z) ∧ MOUSE (z)))

    ∀ x ∀ y ∀ z (¬ (HAVE (x,y) ∧ CAT (y))∨ ¬ (HAVE(x,z) ∧ MOUSE (z)))

    ¬ HAVE(x,y) ∨ ¬ CAT(y) ∨ ¬ HAVE(x,z) ∨ ¬ MOUSE(z)

    (Video) resolution in FOL | Artificial intelligence | Lec-36 | Bhanu Priya

  3. ∀ x (LS(x) →¬ ∃ y (HAVE (x,y) ∧ HOWL(y)))

    ∀ x (LS(x) → ∀ y ¬ (HAVE (x,y) ∧ HOWL(y)))

    ∀ x ∀ y (LS(x) → ¬ HAVE(x,y) ∨ ¬ HOWL(y))

    ∀ x ∀ y (¬ LS(x) ∨ ¬ HAVE(x,y) ∨ ¬ HOWL(y))

    ¬ LS(x) ∨ ¬ HAVE(x,y) ∨ ¬ HOWL(y)

  4. ∃ x (HAVE (John,x) ∧ (CAT(x) ∨ HOUND(x)))

    HAVE(John,a) ∧ (CAT(a) ∨ HOUND(a))

  5. ¬ [LS(John) → ¬ ∃ z (HAVE(John,z)∧ MOUSE(z))] (negated conclusion)

    ¬ [¬ LS (John) ∨ ¬ ∃ z (HAVE (John, z) ∧ MOUSE(z))]

    LS(John) ∧ ∃ z (HAVE(John, z) ∧ MOUSE(z)))

    LS(John) ∧ HAVE(John,b) ∧ MOUSE(b)

The set of CNF clauses for this problem is thus as follows:

(Video) Resolution example | FOL | Artificial intelligence | Lec-37 | Bhanu Priya

  1. ¬ HOUND(x) ∨ HOWL(x)
  2. ¬ HAVE(x,y) ∨ ¬ CAT(y) ∨ ¬ HAVE(x,z) ∨ ¬ MOUSE(z)
  3. ¬ LS(x) ∨ ¬ HAVE(x,y) ∨ ¬ HOWL(y)
    1. HAVE(John,a)
    2. CAT(a) ∨ HOUND(a)
    1. LS(John)
    2. HAVE(John,b)
    3. MOUSE(b)

Now we proceed to prove the conclusion by resolution using the above clauses.Each result clause is numbered; the numbers of its parent clauses are shownto its left.

[1.,4.(b):] 6. CAT(a) ∨ HOWL(a)

[2,5.(c):]

7. ¬ HAVE(x,y) ∨ ¬ CAT(y) ∨ ¬ HAVE(x,b)

[7,5.(b):]

8. ¬ HAVE(John,y) ∨ ¬ CAT(y)

[6,8:]

9. ¬ HAVE(John,a) ∨ HOWL(a)

[4.(a),9:]

10. HOWL(a)

[3,10:]

11. ¬ LS(x) ∨ ¬ HAVE(x,a)

[4.(a),11:]

12. ¬ LS(John)

[5.(a),12:]

13.

Exercises:

1. Unify (if possible) the following pairs of predicates and give theresulting substitutions. b is a constant.

a. P(x, f(x), z)
¬ P(g(y),f(g(b)),y)
b. P(x, f(x))
¬ P(f(y), y)
c. P(x, f(z))
¬ P(f(y), y)

2. Consider the following axioms:

  1. Every child loves Santa.
  2. Everyone who loves Santa loves any reindeer.
  3. Rudolph is a reindeer, and Rudolph has a red nose.
  4. Anything which has a red nose is weird or is a clown.
  5. No reindeer is a clown.
  6. Scrooge does not love anything which is weird.
  7. (Conclusion) Scrooge is not a child.
Represent these axioms in predicate calculus; skolemize as necessaryand convert each formula to clause form. (Note: `has a red nose' canbe a single predicate. Remember to negate the conclusion.) Prove theunsatisfiability of the set of clauses by resolution.

3. Consider the following axioms:

  1. Anyone who buys carrots by the bushel owns either a rabbit or agrocery store.
  2. Every dog chases some rabbit.
  3. Mary buys carrots by the bushel.
  4. Anyone who owns a rabbit hates anything that chases any rabbit.
  5. John owns a dog.
  6. Someone who hates something owned by another person will not datethat person.
  7. (Conclusion) If Mary does not own a grocery store, she will not dateJohn.

Represent these clauses in predicate calculus, using only those predicateswhich are necessary. For example, you need not represent `person', andphrases such as `who buys carrots by the bushel' may be represented bya single predicate. Negate the conclusion and convert to clause form,skolemizing as necessary. Prove the unsatisfiability of the resultingset of clauses by resolution.

4. Consider the following axioms:

  1. Every Austinite who is not conservative loves some armadillo.
  2. Anyone who wears maroon-and-white shirts is an Aggie.
  3. Every Aggie loves every dog.
  4. Nobody who loves every dog loves any armadillo.
  5. Clem is an Austinite, and Clem wears maroon-and-white shirts.
  6. (Conclusion) Is there a conservative Austinite?

5. Consider the following axioms:

  1. Anyone whom Mary loves is a football star.
  2. Any student who does not pass does not play.
  3. John is a student.
  4. Any student who does not study does not pass.
  5. Anyone who does not play is not a football star.
  6. (Conclusion) If John does not study, then Mary does not love John.

6. Consider the following axioms:

(Video) The Resolution Principle (Preliminaries)

  1. Every coyote chases some roadrunner.
  2. Every roadrunner who says ``beep-beep'' is smart.
  3. No coyote catches any smart roadrunner.
  4. Any coyote who chases some roadrunner but does notcatch it is frustrated.
  5. (Conclusion) If all roadrunners say ``beep-beep'', then all coyotesare frustrated.

7. Consider the following axioms:

  1. Anyone who rides any Harley is a rough character.
  2. Every biker rides [something that is] either a Harley or a BMW.
  3. Anyone who rides any BMW is a yuppie.
  4. Every yuppie is a lawyer.
  5. Any nice girl does not date anyone who is a rough character.
  6. Mary is a nice girl, and John is a biker.
  7. (Conclusion) If John is not a lawyer, then Mary does not date John.

8. Consider the following axioms:

  1. Every child loves anyone who gives the child any present.
  2. Every child will be given some present by Santa if Santacan travel on Christmas eve.
  3. It is foggy on Christmas eve.
  4. Anytime it is foggy, anyone can travel if he has somesource of light.
  5. Any reindeer with a red nose is a source of light.
  6. (Conclusion) If Santa has some reindeer with a red nose, thenevery child loves Santa.

9. Consider the following axioms:

  1. Every investor bought [something that is] stocks or bonds.
  2. If the Dow-Jones Average crashes, then all stocks that arenot gold stocks fall.
  3. If the T-Bill interest rate rises, then all bonds fall.
  4. Every investor who bought something that falls is not happy.
  5. (Conclusion) If the Dow-Jones Average crashes and the T-Billinterest rate rises, then any investor who is happy bought some gold stock.

10. Consider the following axioms:

  1. Every child loves every candy.
  2. Anyone who loves some candy is not a nutrition fanatic.
  3. Anyone who eats any pumpkin is a nutrition fanatic.
  4. Anyone who buys any pumpkin either carves it or eats it.
  5. John buys a pumpkin.
  6. Lifesavers is a candy.
  7. (Conclusion) If John is a child, then John carves some pumpkin.

11. Consider the following axioms:

  1. Every tree that is an oak contains some grackle.
  2. If anyone walks under any tree that contains any grackle,then he hates every grackle.
  3. For every building, there is some tree that is beside it.
  4. Taylor Hall is a building.
  5. Every CS student visits Taylor Hall.
  6. If anyone visits any building, then he walks under every treethat is beside that building.
  7. (Conclusion) If some CS student does not hate some grackle,then there is some tree beside Taylor Hall that is not an oak.

12. Consider the following axioms:

  1. Every child sees some witch.
  2. No witch has both a black cat and a pointed hat.
  3. Every witch is good or bad.
  4. Every child who sees any good witch gets candy.
  5. Every witch that is bad has a black cat.
  6. (Conclusion) If every witch that is seen by any child has a pointed hat,then every child gets candy.

13. Consider the following axioms:

  1. Every boy or girl is a child.
  2. Every child gets a doll or a train or a lump of coal.
  3. No boy gets any doll.
  4. No child who is good gets any lump of coal.
  5. (Conclusion) If no child gets a train, then no boy is good.

14. Consider the following axioms:

  1. Every child who finds some [thing that is an] egg or chocolatebunny is happy.
  2. Every child who is helped finds some egg.
  3. Every child who is not young or who tries hard finds somechocolate bunny.
  4. (Conclusion) If every young child tries hard or is helped, thenevery child is happy.

15. Consider the following axioms:

(Video) Artificial Intelligence 31 Resolution Explanation with Example in Ai | tutorial | sanjaypathakjec

  1. Anything that is played by any student is tennis, soccer, or chess.
  2. Anything that is chess is not vigorous.
  3. Anyone who is healthy plays something that is vigorous.
  4. Anyone who plays any chess does not play any soccer.
  5. (Conclusion) If every student is healthy, then every studentwho plays any chess plays some tennis.

16. Consider the following axioms:

  1. Every student who makes good grades is brilliant or studies.
  2. Every student who is a CS major has some roommate.[Make ``roommate'' a two-place predicate.]
  3. Every student who has any roommate who likes to partygoes to Sixth Street.
  4. Anyone who goes to Sixth Street does not study.
  5. (Conclusion) If every roommate of every CS major likes to party,then every student who is a CS major and makes good grades is brilliant.

17. Consider the following axioms:

  1. Everyone who aces any final exam studies or is brilliant or is lucky.
  2. Everyone who makes an A aces some final exam.
  3. No CS major is lucky.
  4. Anyone who drinks beer does not study.
  5. (Conclusion) If every CS major makes an A, then every CS majorwho drinks beer is brilliant.

18. Consider the following axioms:

  1. Anyone who loves any lottery is a gambler.
  2. Everyone who favors the lottery proposition loves some lottery.
  3. Everyone favors the lottery proposition or opposes the lotteryproposition.
  4. If every Baptist votes and opposes the lottery proposition, thenthe lottery proposition does not win.
  5. Every Baptist who is faithful is not a gambler.
  6. (Conclusion) If every Baptist votes and the lottery proposition wins,then some Baptist is not faithful.

19. Consider the following axioms. Hint: the predicates WHITE,SNOWY, HAPPY, and GETS should each have a ``time'' argument.

  1. Anyone who owns any sled is happy when it is snowy.
  2. When it is white, it is snowy.
  3. If Santa is happy at Christmas, then every child who is goodgets some toy at Christmas.
  4. Any child who gets a toy at any time is happy at that time.
  5. Santa owns a sled.
  6. (Conclusion) If it is white at Christmas and every child who isnot good owns some sled, then every child is happy at Christmas.

20. Consider the following axioms.

  1. Anyone who is on Sixth Street and is not a police officer has somecostume.
  2. No CS student is a police officer.
  3. Every costume that is good is a robot costume.
  4. For anyone, if they are on Sixth Street and are happy, then everycostume they have is good or they are drunk.
  5. (Conclusion) If no CS student is drunk and every CS student onSixth Street is happy, then every CS student on Sixth Street has somecostume that is a robot costume.

21. Consider the following axioms.

  1. For every mall, there is some Santa who is at the mall.
  2. Every child who visits anywhere talks with every Santa who is atthe place visited. [Don't make a predicate for ``the place visited'';it should just be a variable.]
  3. Every child who is a city child visits some mall.
  4. Every child who is good or who talks with some Santa gets some toy.
  5. (Conclusion) If every child who is not a city child is good,then every child gets some toy.

22. Consider the following axioms.

  1. Everyone who feels warm either is drunk, or every costume theyhave is warm.
  2. Every costume that is warm is furry.
  3. Every AI student is a CS student.
  4. Every AI student has some robot costume.
  5. No robot costume is furry.
  6. (Conclusion) If every CS student feels warm, then every AIstudent is drunk.

23. Consider the following axioms.

  1. Every bird sleeps in some tree.
  2. Every loon is a bird, and every loon is aquatic.
  3. Every tree in which any aquatic bird sleeps is beside some lake.
  4. Anything that sleeps in anything that is beside any lake eats fish.
  5. (Conclusion) Every loon eats fish.

24. Consider the following axioms.

(Video) RESOLUTION OF A GIVEN FORCES IN TWO DIRECTION || STATICS - B.A./B.Sc 2bd YEAR ||M.Sc ||GATE ||

  1. Everyone is like him/her self.
  2. If someone is a member of a club, then they want to be a member and the club will accept them.
  3. Groucho does not want to be a member of any club that will accept anyone like him.
  4. (Conclusion) Groucho is not a member of any club.

25.``Schubert's Steamroller'', for the ambitious. (See C. Walther,AAAI-84, p. 330.)

Wolves, foxes, birds, caterpillars, and snails are animals, and thereare some of each of them. Also there are some grains, and grains areplants. Every animal either likes to eat all plants or all animals muchsmaller than itself that like to eat some plants. Caterpillars and snailsare much smaller than birds, which are much smaller than foxes, whichin turn are much smaller than wolves. Wolves do not like to eat foxesor grains, while birds like to eat caterpillars but not snails. Caterpillarsand snails like to eat some plants. Therefore there is an animal thatlikes to eat a grain-eating animal.

Solutions to Selected Problems

Gordon S. Novak Jr.

FAQs

What is resolution technique explain with example? ›

Resolution is a theorem proving technique that proceeds by building refutation proofs, i.e., proofs by contradictions. It was invented by a Mathematician John Alan Robinson in the year 1965. Resolution is used, if there are various statements are given, and we need to prove a conclusion of those statements.

How do you resolve resolution? ›

In order to apply resolution in a proof: we express our hypotheses and conclusion as a product of sums (conjunctive normal form), such as those that appear in the Resolution Tautology. each maxterm in the CNF of the hypothesis becomes a clause in the proof.

How can resolution be used to show that a sentence is valid Unsatisfiable? ›

More generally, if a set Δ of Propositional Logic sentences is unsatisfiable, then there is guaranteed to be a resolution derivation of the empty clause from the clausal form of Δ. Propositional Resolution can be used in a proof procedure that always terminates without losing completeness.

What is resolution in predicate logic? ›

Resolution is an inference rule that produces a new clause. from two clauses with complementary literals (p and ¬p).

What is resolution explain with example in artificial intelligence? ›

Resolution method is an inference rule which is used in both Propositional as well as First-order Predicate Logic in different ways. This method is basically used for proving the satisfiability of a sentence. In resolution method, we use Proof by Refutation technique to prove the given statement.

What is the resolution rule? ›

Resolution rule

The resolution rule in propositional logic is a single valid inference rule that produces a new clause implied by two clauses containing complementary literals. A literal is a propositional variable or the negation of a propositional variable.

What is Resolution Wikipedia? ›

Resolution (debate), the statement which is debated in policy debate. Resolution (law), a written motion adopted by a deliberative body. New Year's resolution, a commitment that an individual makes at New Year's Day. Dispute resolution, the settlement of a disagreement.

Why resolution is required? ›

Most decisions beyond the normal day-to-day running of a business will require a resolution. These also need to be passed for any decision which affects the constitution or rules of a company. Examples include: appointing company directors.

Is resolution sound and complete? ›

The resolution method for (propositional) logic due to J.A. Robinson [4] (1965) is well- known to be a sound and complete procedure for checking the unsatisfiability of a set of clauses.

What is a logical resolution? ›

Logical resolution essentially is what a device's resolution would be if it did not have high resolution. This baseline is set at roughly 163 pixels per inch.

What is predicate logic example? ›

Example: P(x,y): “x + 2 = y” is a predicate. It has two variables x and y; Universe of Discourse: x is in {1,2,3}; y is in {4,5,6}. P(1,4) : 1 + 2 = 4 is a proposition (it is F); P(2,4) : 2 + 2 = 4 is a proposition (it is T);

What is resolution tree? ›

The resolution proof tree is a demonstration of how the empty clause is found, starting from the clauses generated from the axioms and the negation of the theorem. • When a pair of clauses generates a new resolvent clause, a new node is added to the tree with arcs directed from the two parent clauses to the resolvent.

When the resolution is called as refutation complete? ›

Explanation: Resolution is refutation-complete, if a set of sentence is unsatisfiable, then resolution will always be able to derive a contradiction.

What is resolution and refutation in artificial intelligence? ›

Resolution is one kind of proof technique that works this way - (i) select two clauses that contain conflicting terms (ii) combine those two clauses and (iii) cancel out the conflicting terms. For example we have following statements, (1) If it is a pleasant day you will do strawberry picking.

What is resolution principle in critical thinking? ›

The resolution principle, due to Robinson (1965), is a method of theorem proving that proceeds by constructing refutation proofs, i.e., proofs by contradiction. This method has been exploited in many automatic theorem provers. The resolution principle applies to first-order logic formulas in Skolemized form.

What is resolution refutation? ›

A resolution proof that derives the empty clause is called a refutation proof, as it shows that the input set of clauses F is unsatisfiable. A resolution proof of a clause C can be viewed as a directed acyclic graph (DAG).

What is resolution discrete structure? ›

Resolvent: For any two clauses C1 and C2, if there is a literal L1 in C1 that is complementary to literal L2 in C2, then delete L1 and L2 from C1 and C2 respectively and construct the disjunction of the remaining clauses. The constructed clause is a resolvent of C1 and C2. C1 = P ∨ Q ∨ R.

What is resolution and its types? ›

What is Resolution? The “resolution” is a plan sent to the meeting for discussion and approval. If the motion is approved by the members present at the meeting unanimously, it is referred to as a resolution. Three forms of resolutions are available: ordinary resolution, special resolution and unanimous resolution.

What are the four types of resolution? ›

There are four types of resolution to consider for any dataset—radiometric, spatial, spectral, and temporal. Radiometric resolution is the amount of information in each pixel, that is, the number of bits representing the energy recorded.

What are the different resolutions? ›

Video Resolution Chart
ResolutionNamePixel Size
SD (Standard Definition)480p640 x 480
HD (High Definition)720p1280 x 720
Full HD (FHD)1080p1920 x 1080
2K video (Quad HD)2k or 14402560 x 1440
2 more rows
28 Oct 2021

What are the three types of resolutions? ›

The three types of resolutions are joint resolutions, simple resolutions and concurrent resolutions. Roll Call Vote – There are several different ways of voting in Congress, one of which is the roll call vote, where the vote of each member is recorded.

What is a specific resolution? ›

A special resolution is a resolution of the company's shareholders which requires at least 75% of the votes cast by shareholders in favour of it in order to pass.

How do you pass a resolution at a general meeting? ›

The votes cast in favour of the resolution must exceed the votes cast against it. In other words, a simple majority in favour of the motion shall allow the resolution to be passed. Notice of the meeting must have been served to all the members in advance, complying with the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013.

How do you remember the rules of inferences? ›

If it is snowing, then I will study discrete math.” “I will not study discrete math.” “Therefore , it is not snowing.” Example: Let p be “it snows.” Let q be “I will study discrete math.” Let r be “I will get an A.” “If it snows, then I will study discrete math.” “If I study discrete math, I will get an A.”

What is predicate logic illustrator? ›

Predicate logic is a mathematical model that is used for reasoning with predicates. Predicates are functions that map variables to truth values. They are essentially boolean functions whose value could be true or false, depending on the arguments to the predicate. They are generalizations of propositional variables.

What are the reasoning patterns in propositional logic? ›

Note: Inductive and deductive reasoning are the forms of propositional logic.

Which resolution is best? ›

However, now that most computer screens are HD, best practice is to aim for a higher resolution than 720 for web use and streaming. Often referred to as “full HD,” 1080 (1920 x 1080 pixels) has become the industry standard for a crisp HD digital video that doesn't break your storage space.

What is the best display resolution? ›

Currently, most people recognize 4K to be the pinnacle of resolution. For laptops and computer monitors, the most reliable threshold is 3840 x 2160 resolution.

What is an example of a predicate? ›

A predicate is the part of a sentence, or a clause, that tells what the subject is doing or what the subject is. Let's take the same sentence from before: “The cat is sleeping in the sun.” The clause sleeping in the sun is the predicate; it's dictating what the cat is doing.

How do you write a sentence in first-order logic? ›

Atomic sentences are the most basic sentences of first-order logic. These sentences are formed from a predicate symbol followed by a parenthesis with a sequence of terms. We can represent atomic sentences as Predicate (term1, term2, ......, term n).

What is a predicate symbol? ›

A predicate symbol represents a predicate for objects and is notated P(x, y), Q(z),…, where P and Q are predicate symbols. A logical symbol represents an operation on predicate symbols and is notated ↔, ~,→,∨, or ∧ A term can contain individual constants, individual variables, and/or functions.

What is binary resolution in AI? ›

Binary resolution

The two parent clauses resolved against one another, upon the literals that unify. The result is a resolvant. If no literals remain after resolution, the resolvant is FALSE (indicating that the parent clauses contradicted each other).

How do I remove existential quantifier in resolution? ›

Skolemization: remove existential quantifiers by introducing new function symbols. How: For each existentially quantified variable introduce a n-place function where n is the number of previously appearing universal quantifiers. Least specialized unification of two clauses.

What is the requirement for unifying two clauses in the resolution principle? ›

Let C1 and C2 be two clauses of fuzzy logic and let R(C1, C2) be a classical resolvent of C1 and C2. Let l be the literal on the basis of which R(C1,C2) has been obtained. Then, the fuzzy resolvent of C1 and C2 is R(C1,C2) ∨ (l ∧¬l) with the truth value max(‖R(C1,C2)‖, ‖(l∧¬l)‖).

What is the use of resolve Mcq? ›

Resolution is the ability of the instrument or measurement system to detect and faithfully indicate the small changes in the characteristics of the measurement result.

Which of the following is also called first-order logic? ›

First-order logic—also known as predicate logic, quantificational logic, and first-order predicate calculus—is a collection of formal systems used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science.

What is the meaning of resolution in computer? ›

Resolution. Resolution indicates the number of pixels that are displayed per inch for an image (or pixels per centimeter). Most computer monitors display at resolutions of 72 pixels per inch or 96 pixels per inch.

What is the resolution in chemistry? ›

resolution, also called optical resolution or chiral resolution, in chemistry, any process by which a racemic mixture is separated into its two constituent enantiomers.

What are the different methods of resolution? ›

Different methods used for resolutpon are 1) By using enzymes 2) Conversion to diastereomers 3) Chromatographic method using special adsorbents. 4) Mechanical Separation 5) Deracemization.

What is the resolution of a story? ›

Resolution. The resolution is the end of the story. It occurs after the CLIMAX. It is when you learn what happens to the characters after the CONFLICT is resolved.

What is the meaning of resolution '? ›

Britannica Dictionary definition of RESOLUTION. 1. a [noncount] : the act of finding an answer or solution to a conflict, problem, etc. : the act of resolving something.

Why is the resolution important? ›

What is resolution and why is it important? Resolution is the amount of dots or pixels that make up an image. It is traditionally measured in DPI (Dots Per Inch) it is now mostly referred to as PPI (Pixels Per Inch). Resolution is quite important, as the wrong resolution in the wrong circumstances can look terrible.

What is the resolution of an image? ›

Image resolution is typically described in PPI, which refers to how many pixels are displayed per inch of an image. Higher resolutions mean that there more pixels per inch (PPI), resulting in more pixel information and creating a high-quality, crisp image.

What is an example of resolution in science? ›

Resolution is the ability to see two structures as two separate structures rather than as one fuzzy dot. A good example of this is when you look at the Moon with your naked eyes – you see a bright spot with patterns on it.

Why resolution is important in chemistry? ›

Resolution helps accuracy in two ways, one is that it eliminates possible contaminating peaks at the same nominal mass, while the second is that it makes it easier to define the peak position consistently.

What is the resolution of a syringe? ›

About Syringes

A syringe may have a resolution between 1 millilitre and 0.1 millilitres. To use a syringe accurately: Any bubbles must be removed from the liquid before reading the volume.

How do you write a resolution letter? ›

How to Write a Resolution
  1. Format the resolution by putting the date and resolution number at the top. ...
  2. Form a title of the resolution that speaks to the issue that you want to document. ...
  3. Use formal language in the body of the resolution, beginning each new paragraph with the word, whereas.
16 Jun 2021

What are resolving agents? ›

A chiral derivatizing agent (CDA) also known as a chiral resolving reagent, is a chiral auxiliary used to convert a mixture of enantiomers into diastereomers in order to analyze the quantities of each enantiomer present within the mix.

What are the three basic methods for the resolution of optically active complexes? ›

3-1 Chiroptical methods

Chiroptical methods comprise polarimetry, optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), and circular dichroism (CD).

How do you write a resolution essay? ›

Specifically address the resolution of the conflict presented in your essay. Avoid restating your thesis or saying things like, "In conclusion..." or "I resolved this by..." Instead, your resolution should be more subtle and give the reader a sense of relief and clarity.

What makes a good resolution? ›

The resolution must tie off all prominent loose ends, leaving the reader without any salient questions. However, it must also avoid being too pat. 3. The resolution needs to offer the reader a sense of continuation in the lives of the characters.

Is resolution a conclusion? ›

Resolution is the conclusion of a story's plot and is a part of a complete conclusion to a story. The resolution occurs at the end of a story following the climax and falling action.

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