Uricosuric Agent - an overview (2022)

The uricosuric agent lesinurad, a selective URAT1 inhibitor, was approved by the FDA in December of 2015 for the treatment of hyperuricemia in patients with gout who have failed to reach a target serum uric acid level of less than 6.0 mg/dL while taking allopurinol or febuxostat.

From: Kelley and Firestein's Textbook of Rheumatology (Tenth Edition), 2017

Related terms:

  • Hyperuricemia
  • Uric Acid
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Allopurinol
  • Probenecid
  • Toxicity
  • Gout
  • Urate
View all TopicsNavigate Right

Gout and Hyperuricemia

Rick D. Kellerman MD, in Conn's Current Therapy 2021, 2021

Uricosurics

Relative to medications aimed at urate synthesis, uricosurics are relegated to second-line treatment of patients with elevated urate burden or tophaceous disease. The most commonly used uricosuric agent in the United States is probenecid. This is a very effective drug that concentrates and promotes urinary excretion of urate. Its utility is limited in patients with renal insufficiency, and probenecid is not recommended as first-line therapy in patients with nephrolithiasis or uric acid overexcretion. The maintenance dose of probenecid required to achieve and maintain serum urate concentration at less than 6.0 mg/dL is 0.5 to 3 g/day3 administered in 2 or 3 daily doses. Once goal serum urate concentration has been achieved with a uricosuric agent, the risk of uric acid calculi is diminished because urinary uric acid excretion becomes normal.

Lesinurad (Zurampic) is another uricosuric agent; it is an inhibitor of renal transport proteins and was approved by the FDA in 2016. It is used at a dose of 200 mg/day in combination with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, including allopurinol (Zyloprim) or febuxostat (Uloric). In 2017, the FDA approved a combination product of lesinurad 200 mg and allopurinol 300 mg (Duzallo), one tablet in the morning for hyperuricemia. This product is also available as a tablet containing lesinurad 200 mg and allopurinol 200 mg for patients with renal impairment. The drug has a boxed warning regarding the risk of acute renal failure.

Other drugs found to have uricosuric effects include fenofibrate (Tricor),1 a fibric acid derivative used to treat hyperlipidemia, and the antihypertensives losartan (Cozaar)1 and amlodipine (Norvasc).1 These agents have mild uricosuric properties and may be useful adjuncts to urate-lowering therapy. The ingestion of skim milk has been shown to lower serum urate levels through uricosuric effects. Lower urate levels have also been seen in patients who consume coffee, but the mechanism of action is unknown.

Uricosuric Therapy of Hyperuricemia in Gout

Fernando Perez-Ruiz, ... Joana Atxotegi Saenz de Buruaga, in , 2012

Introduction: Concepts and Historical Background

Uricosuric drugs were the first agents used to control hyperuricemia in patients with gout.1 Any drug that increases renal excretion of uric acid, independently of the mechanism through which it exerts its effect, may be considered a uricosuric drug. Salicylates were the first drugs to be used to correct hyperuricemia of gout, as they showed a paradoxical effect on renal handling of uric acid: they reduce renal excretion at low doses and increase renal excretion at high doses.2

The concept that underlines the term “uricosuric” may be misleading, if one considers that these drugs will exert an effect on the renal handling of urate that will induce what could be considered a hyperuricosuric state. However, it may certainly occur in subjects who show normal renal excretion of uric acid in the hyperuricemic state.

The most actual concept would be to consider uricosuric drugs as drugs to be used to correct hyperuricemia derived from “inefficient renal excretion” (IRE) of uric acid,3 lately known as “underexcretion,” that conceptually means that renal excretion of uric acid is not found to the amount expected based on serum urate concentration (SUR) levels and glomerular filtration, that is to say to the filtered load.4 Thus, our clinical approach to the use of uricosurics will be to recognize them as means to normalize renal excretion of uric acid in patients with IRE of uric acid.5

In this chapter, we will further discuss the concept, targets, and clinical assessment of IRE; drugs that increase renal excretion of uric acid, either approved, not approved, or in development; and clinical management of uricosuric therapy, including combination of xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOIs) and uricosurics.

View chapterPurchase book

Read full chapter

URL:

(Video) 5. Drugs which increase excretion of uric acid - Chronic Gout - Neet PG , Fmge Pharmacology

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781437728644100120

Crystal Arthropathies

Edward J. Wing MD, FACP, FIDSA, in Cecil Essentials of Medicine, 2022

Uricosuric therapy

Probenecid may be used as first-line ULT in uric acid undersecretors (<600 mg in a 24-hour urine collection) and in the setting of contraindication or intolerance to XOIs. Probenecid can be combined with an XOI to achieve target UA level, assuming adequate renal function. Probenecid is ineffective in patients with renal insufficiency (glomerular filtration rate <50 mL/minute) and is contraindicated in patients with nephrolithiasis. Patients should maintain high urine volume by drinking at least 1.5 L of fluid daily. Lesinurad is not used as monotherapy but can be combined with an XOI.

Management of gout and hyperuricemia

Robert Terkeltaub, in Rheumatology (Sixth Edition), 2015

Probenecid

Mechanism of action

Primary uricosurics such as probenecid, as well as certain other drugs with less potent uricosuric activity (e.g., losartan), inhibit the urate anion exchanger SLC22A12, which is localized at the apical (brush border) membrane of the renal proximal tubule epithelial cell.36 Probenecid also inhibits voltage-dependent urate anion reabsorption into the peritubular interstitium by SLC2A9 at the proximal renal tubular epithelial cell basolateral membrane.37

Dosing recommendations and side effects

Probenecid is started at 250 mg orally twice daily and titrated up to 1000 mg twice daily in most patients and occasionally up to 3 g daily if tolerated. The risk for urolithiasis with potent uricosuric monotherapy such as probenecid and benzbromarone can be 9% to 11%. All patients should be able to adequately hydrate themselves and increase oral hydration, particularly during early treatment. Inhibition of uric acid urolithiasis by urine alkalinization adds complexity to the treatment regimen. Uricosuric risk management requires 24-hour urine uric acid assays to rule out overproduction of uric acid,1 which along with urolithiasis, is a contraindication to such monotherapy. Acidic urine pH is a major risk factor for urolithiasis in patients with gout, as is urine–undissociated uric acid concentrations higher than 20 mg/dL (roughly equivalent to >40 mg/dL total uric acid in acidic urine) before or while receiving uricosuric therapy (grade B).38 Probenecid modifies the renal clearance of methotrexate, penicillins and cephalosporins, salicylates, indomethacin, ketorolac, heparin, zidovudine, nitrofurantoin, and certain other drugs. Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid does not appear to robustly block the antihyperuricemic action of probenecid.

View chapterPurchase book

Read full chapter

URL:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323091381001893

Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant drugs

James M. Ritter DPhil FRCP HonFBPhS FMedSci, in Rang & Dale's Pharmacology, 2020

Uricosuric agents

Uricosuric drugs increase uric acid excretion by a direct action on the renal tubule (seeCh. 30). They remain useful as prophylaxis for patients with severe recurrent gout who have severe adverse reactions to allopurinol. Common drugs include probenecid and sulfinpyrazone (which also has NSAID activity).Benzbromarone is also available on a named patient basis for treatment of patients with renal impairment. Treatment with uricosuric drugs is initiated together with an NSAID, as in the case of allopurinol. However, aspirin and salicylates antagonise the action of uricosuric drugs and should not be used concurrently.

Although not strictly speaking in this group,rasburicase, a preparation containing the enzyme uric acid oxidase, is sometimes used for aggressive treatment of gout. It oxidises uric acid in the blood to allantoin, which is more soluble and thus more readily excreted.

P

In Mosby's Dental Drug Reference (Eleventh Edition), 2014

Drug Class:

Uricosuric

Mechanism of Action

A uricosuric that competitively inhibits reabsorption of uric acid at the proximal convoluted tubule. Also, inhibits renal tubular secretion of weak organic acids, such as penicillins.

Therapeutic Effect: Promotes uric acid excretion, reduces serum uric acid level, and increases plasma levels of penicillins and cephalosporins.

Uses

Treatment of hyperuricemia in gout, gouty arthritis, adjunct to cephalosporin or penicillin treatment by reducing excretion and maintaining high blood levels

Pharmacokinetics

Hyperuricemia in gout, gouty arthritis, adjunct to cephalosporin or penicillin treatment by reducing excretion and maintaining high blood levels.

Example: Probenecid (generic name), 500mg

Indications and Dosages

▸ Gout
PO
Adults, Elderly.

Initially, 250mg twice a day for 1wk; then 500mg twice a day. May increase by 500mg q4wk. Maximum: 2–3g/day. Maintenance: Dosage that maintains normal uric acid level.

▸ As Adjunct to Penicillin or Cephalosporin Therapy to Prolong Antibiotic Plasma Levels

PO
Adults, Elderly.

2g/day in divided doses.

Children weighing more than 50kg.

Receive adult dosage.

Children 2–14yr.

Initially, 25mg/kg. Maintenance: 40mg/kg/day in 4 divided doses.

▸ Gonorrhea

PO
Adults, Elderly.

1g 30min before penicillin, ampicillin, or amoxicillin.

Side Effects/Adverse Reactions

Frequent

Headache, anorexia, nausea, vomiting

Occasional

Lower back or side pain, rash, hives, itching, dizziness, flushed face, frequent urge to urinate, gingivitis

Precautions and Contraindications

Blood dyscrasias, children younger than 2yr, concurrent high-dose aspirin therapy, severe renal impairment, uric acid calculi

Caution:

Severe respiratory disease, lactation, cardiac edema

Drug Interactions of Concern to Dentistry

Increased toxicity: dapsone, indomethacin, other NSAIDs, acyclovir

Increased sedation: benzodiazepines

Decreased action: alcohol, salicylates

Increased duration of action: penicillins, cephalosporins

Serious Reactions

!

Severe hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, occur rarely and usually within a few hr after administration following previous use. If severe hypersensitivity reactions develop, discontinue the drug immediately and contact the physician.

!

Pruritic maculopapular rash, possibly accompanied by malaise, fever, chills, arthralgia, nausea, vomiting, leukopenia, and aplastic anemias should be considered a toxic reaction.

Dental Considerations

General:

Avoid prescribing aspirin-containing products.

Teach Patient/Family to:

Encourage effective oral hygiene to prevent soft tissue inflammation.

Use caution to prevent injury when using oral hygiene aids.

(Video) 1837: Uricosuric Agent or Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor

Avoid mouth rinses with high alcohol content because of drying effects.

(Video) Medical vocabulary: What does Uricosuric Agents mean

View chapterPurchase book

Read full chapter

URL:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978032316916500016X

Gout

Fasih A. Hameed MD, ABIHM, in Integrative Medicine (Fourth Edition), 2018

Probenecid

Probenecid is a uricosuric drug and therefore helpful in cases of underexcretion. It is the “gold standard” in elderly patients on thiazide diuretics.1 Uricosuric agents should be avoided in persons susceptible to nephrolithiasis such as those with tophaceous disease or urate overproduction.

Dosage

Starting dose of prebenecid is 250 mg twice daily. Titrate up to effective dose, usually 500–1000 mg twice daily.

Precautions

Probenecid is less effective at glomerular filtration rates less than 60 mL/min. Avoid use in persons prone to nephrolithiasis and in those with cystinuria.

View chapterPurchase book

Clinical Features and Treatment of Gout

Christopher M. Burns, Robert L. Wortmann, in Kelley's Textbook of Rheumatology (Ninth Edition), 2013

Uricosuric Agents

Administration of a uricosuric agent increases the rate of renal uric acid excretion.194 In the kidney, there are separate transport systems for the secretion and reabsorption of organic ions including uric acid. Because urate is reabsorbed by a renal tubular brush border anion transporter, the reabsorption of urate can be inhibited when uricosuric agents are present in the lumen and compete with urate for the transporter. This inhibition of reabsorptive anion transporter requires high doses of uricosuric agents. Because the secretory transport system is quantitatively much smaller than that for reabsorption and is located in the basolateral membrane of the tubule, when uricosuric agents are taken in low doses, they actually decrease the renal excretion of uric acid and raise serum urate levels by inhibiting the secretory transport system.

Probenecid and sulfinpyrazone are the most widely used uricosuric agents available in the United States. Benzbromarone is used for this purpose in other countries as well. However, many other agents can reduce serum urate levels by enhancing the renal excretion of uric acid (see Table 95-8).

Probenecid is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Its half-life in plasma is dose dependent, varying from 6 to 12 hours. This can be prolonged by the concomitant use of allopurinol. Probenecid is metabolized in vivo, with less than 5% of the administered dose recovered in the urine. The maintenance dosage of probenecid ranges from 500mg to 3g per day and is administered two or three times a day. Acute gouty attacks may accompany the initiation of this medication, and, as with all uricosuric agents, patients using probenecid are at increased risk for developing renal calculi. With long-term use, up to 18% of individuals develop gastrointestinal complaints and 5% develop hypersensitivity and rash. Although serious toxicity is rare, approximately one-third of individuals eventually become intolerant of probenecid and discontinue its use. Probenecid alters the metabolism of several other agents by several mechanisms (Table 95-9). Concomitant use of probenecid can increase the potency of some agents by decreasing their renal excretion, delaying their metabolism, or impairing their hepatic uptake. It may decrease the effectiveness of other medications by reducing their volume of distribution.

(Video) Gout, it's Management and treatment.. Pharmacology of Uricosuric Agent..

Sulfinpyrazone is completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and has a half-life of 1 to 3 hours. Most of the drug is excreted in the urine as the parahydroxyl metabolite, which is also uricosuric. Sulfinpyrazone is usually given at a dosage of 300 to 400mg/day divided into three or four doses. The rates of tolerability and types of adverse reactions are similar to those with probenecid. Unfortunately, sulfinpyrazone is no longer readily available.

Benzbromarone is more potent than probenecid and sulfinpyrazone.177 It is well tolerated and effective in cyclosporine-treated renal transplant patients. It can be used in those with moderate renal dysfunction (creatinine clearance approximately 25mL/min).

View chapterPurchase book

Read full chapter

URL:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781437717389000955

Urate-Lowering Therapy

Ted R. Mikuls, in Kelley and Firestein's Textbook of Rheumatology (Tenth Edition), 2017

Pharmacology

Administered orally, uricosurics undergo GI absorption and are extensively protein bound in the serum. Half-lives of probenecid91 and sulfinpyrazone92 are relatively brief, ranging from approximately 3 to 12 hours (see Table 66-1). Although benzbromarone also has a relatively short half-life of approximately 3 hours, its active metabolite 6-hydroxybenzbromarone has a much longer half-life, allowing for effective once-daily administration.93 Elimination of the uricosurics is primarily via hepatic metabolism, followed by variable excretion of metabolites in the urine, bile, and/or feces. The metabolism of probenecid is limited to side-chain hydroxylation, N-depropylation, and glucuronic conjugation of its carboxyl group.94-96 Both sulfinpyrazone and benzbromarone are metabolized via cytochrome P450 (CYP), with CYP2C9 representing a principal mediator.97,98 Warfarin is also metabolized by primarily via CYP2C9, explaining its drug-drug interactions with both sulfinpyrazone and benzbromarone.

View chapterPurchase book

Read full chapter

URL:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323316965000668

Benzbromarone: A Review☆

Melonie K. Sriranganathan, in Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences, 2018

Introduction

Benzbromarone is a uricosuric agent used for the treatment of gout and hyperuricaemia. It was first used in the 1970s when it was shown to be an effective urate lowering drug (Heel et al., 1977). Reports of possible hepatotoxicity led to its withdrawal from the market in 2003 by Sanofi-Synthélabo. Although still marketed in Asia, Brazil, and some European countries, in other countries such as UK it can only be used on a named patient basis. More recent publications suggest that Benzbromarone can be used safely and effectively with frequent monitoring of liver function (Lee et al., 2008).

View chapterPurchase book

Read full chapter

URL:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128012383977699

(Video) Pharmacology - Gout drugs, Allopurinol, Colchicine for nursing RN PN NCLEX

FAQs

What are uricosuric agents? ›

Uricosuric agents are medications prescribed for the treatment of gout, a painful arthritic condition caused by excessive uric acid in the blood that gets deposited as monosodium urate crystals in joints.

Why uricosuric drugs are not given in acute gout? ›

Given without due precautions during acute attacks of gout, the uricosuric drugs may cause exacerbations. They should be given during quiescent phases of the disease.

Which uricosuric drugs is not used in acute got? ›

Uricosuric agents lower uric acid levels by inhibiting renal tubular reabsorption of uric acid, thereby increasing net renal excretion of uric acid. These agents increase the risk of renal stones, with about a 9-10% risk for probenecid. They should not be started during an attack of acute gouty arthritis.

Why is losartan uricosuric? ›

The angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan lowers serum concentration of urate (Sur) in hypertensive subjects through a significant uricosuric action. This effect has been reported to result from the inhibition of urate/anion transport in brush-border cells of the renal proximal tubules.

What are uricosuric drugs with examples? ›

Uricosurics are drugs that promote the excretion of uric acid and are used in patients who have gout (high uric acid levels leading to uric acid crystal formation in joints).
...
Uricosuric
  • Probenecid.
  • Anticoagulant.
  • Allopurinol.
  • Enzymes.
  • Losartan.
  • Benzbromarone.
  • Uric Acid.
  • Proteome.

Is aspirin a uricosuric agent? ›

Aspirin doses up to 1–2 g/day reduce uric acid excretion, contributing to hyperuricaemia, whereas higher doses are uricosuric. The commonly employed doses in the USA, such as 325 mg ('full strength') or 81 mg ('baby aspirin'), are within the urate retentive range and thus could contribute to the risk of gout.

Which uricosuric drug is used in acute gout is? ›

Uricosuric drugs include probenecid, benzbromarone, micronised fenofibrate and losartan. They are the urate-lowering drugs of choice in allopurinol-allergic patients and underexcretors with normal renal function and no history of urolithiasis.

Is colchicine a uricosuric agent? ›

Colchicine is a uricosuric agent used in the treatment of several systemic and dermatologic conditions.

Which is the first choice of drug for chronic gout? ›

Allopurinol. Allopurinol is the first-line drug for urate-lowering therapy. It is a purine analogue which competitively inhibits xanthine oxidase, reducing the production of uric acid. In patients with normal renal function, allopurinol should be started at a dose of 100 mg daily for the first month.

Which disease is known as King of disease? ›

As a disease of kings, and the king of diseases, gout is one of the oldest joint diseases known to humans. First described as far back as 2640 B.C., gout is still the most common form of inflammatory arthritis haunting humans in the 21st century.

Is losartan a uricosuric agent? ›

Conclusions: In contrast to irbesartan, losartan was uricosuric and decreased serum uric acid levels. Losartan 50 mg b.i.d. did not produce a greater fall in serum uric acid than losartan once a day.

Which drug prevent uric acid synthesis? ›

Allopurinol is an inhibitor of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and inhibits the generation of uric acid (UA) as the final product of purine catabolism, as well as the resulting generation of superoxide (O2(-)), in humans.

Is Febuxostat a uricosuric agent? ›

Febuxostat 80 Mg Tablet Hyperuricemia Agents (Non-Uricosuric) - Uses, Side Effects, and More.

What kind of inhibitor is losartan? ›

Losartan and lisinopril are both generic prescription drugs that are used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). Losartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) and lisinopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor).

What is the function of losartan? ›

Losartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB). It works by blocking a substance in the body that causes blood vessels to tighten. As a result, losartan relaxes the blood vessels. A lower blood pressure will increase the supply of the blood and oxygen to the heart.

Which of the following is uricosuric agent Mcq? ›

The correct answer is B. Allopurinol.

What is the mechanism of action for Rasburicase? ›

What is the mechanism of action? Rasburicase causes an reaction with an enzyme that turns uric acid into an inactive substance, allantoin, thereby reducing uric acid levels.

What is the most popular medicine for gout? ›

Allopurinol. Allopurinol is a medicine for people who make too much uric acid. It is the most common medicine used to treat chronic gout.

What is anti uric acid? ›

Allopurinol is a medicine used to lower levels of uric acid in your blood. If you produce too much uric acid or your kidneys do not filter enough out, it can build up and cause tiny, sharp crystals to form in and around your joints. Allopurinol is used to treat gout and kidney stones.

What type of enzyme is aspirin? ›

Aspirin is classified as a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor 11,14 and is available in many doses and forms, including chewable tablets, suppositories, extended release formulations, and others 19.

Why is aspirin avoided in gout? ›

Other medicines can also increase uric acid level and raise the risk of developing gout. These include: Aspirin. Low doses reduce uric acid excretion and increase the chance of hyperuricemia.

What enzyme is used to treat gout? ›

Treatment for gout targets the enzyme xanthine oxidase by inhibiting its production of uric acid, and thus raising the concentrations of more soluble uric acid precursors, which can be excreted (see figure 1). The major drug used to treat gout is allopurinol, a structural analog of hypoxanthine.

Which drug is contraindicated in gout? ›

Colchicine contraindicated – Colchicine is contraindicated in the presence of any degree of renal or hepatic impairment in patients receiving a P-gp inhibitor (table 2) or an agent that strongly reduces CYP3A4 availability (table 1) [38-40].

What is the latest treatment for gout? ›

KRYSTEXXA® (pegloticase) is a prescription medicine used in adults to help reduce the signs and symptoms of gout that are not controlled by other treatments.

What is another name for colchicine? ›

Colchicine is available as the brand-name drugs Colcrys, Gloperba, and Mitigare. If your doctor has prescribed colchicine and you're interested in using a brand-name form instead, talk with your doctor.

What type of drug is colchicine? ›

Colchicine is in a class of medications called anti-gout agents. It works by stopping the natural processes that cause swelling and other symptoms of gout and FMF.

What is another name for probenecid? ›

Probenecid, also sold under the brand name Probalan, is a medication that increases uric acid excretion in the urine. It is primarily used in treating gout and hyperuricemia.

When do you start Uricosuric? ›

Urate-lowering therapy should not be initiated until the acute attack has completely resolved, since the subsequent rapid decrease in serum urate levels has been shown to exacerbate the gouty attack. Probenecid (Benemid) is the most frequently used uricosuric medication.

What is the gold standard treatment for gout? ›

The drugs of first choice for acute gouty arthritis are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), corticosteroids, and colchicine. Treatment with xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOI) or uricosuric drugs is indicated for patients with a recurrent or severe course; the target uric acid value is <6 mg/dL.

What is the blood test for gout? ›

Uric acid blood test

A blood test can check the level of uric acid in your blood. A high level of uric acid could mean you have gout. A uric acid level in the blood between 3.5 and 7.2 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl) is considered normal for most people.

Who is the father of disease? ›

Abstract. Hippocrates is considered to be the father of modern medicine because in his books, which are more than 70. He described in a scientific manner, many diseases and their treatment after detailed observation. He lived about 2400 years ago.

Who is known as father of disease? ›

370 BC), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the classical period who is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
...
Hippocrates.
Hippocrates of Kos
Diedc. 370 BC (aged approximately 90) Larissa, Ancient Greece
OccupationPhysician
EraClassical Greece
2 more rows

Which disease is known as the white death? ›

Tuberculosis (TB) was called “phthisis” in ancient Greece, “tabes” in ancient Rome, and “schachepheth” in ancient Hebrew. In the 1700s, TB was called “the white plague” due to the paleness of the patients.

Is amlodipine used for gout? ›

Conclusion: Amlodipine lowered long-term gout risk compared with lisinopril or chlorthalidone. This finding may be useful in cases where gout risk is a principal concern among patients being treated for hypertension.

Which hypertensive drug causes gout? ›

By contrast, diuretics, β blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and non-losartan angiotensin II receptor blockers are associated with an increased risk of gout.

What enzyme produces uric acid? ›

Xanthine oxidase (XO) is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine, and of xanthine to uric acid, the process that reduces molecular oxygen and produces O2⋅−.

What drugs increase uric levels? ›

Examples of medicines that increase uric acid levels
  • Diuretics (see below)
  • Aspirin low dose (less than 300 mg daily)
  • Nicotinic acid.
  • Levodopa.
  • Ciclosporin.
  • Tacrolimus.
15 Sept 2021

What causes high uric acid? ›

Most of the time, a high uric acid level occurs when your kidneys don't eliminate uric acid efficiently. Things that may cause this slow-down in the removal of uric acid include rich foods, being overweight, having diabetes, taking certain diuretics (sometimes called water pills) and drinking too much alcohol.

What is another name for febuxostat? ›

Febuxostat is also known by the brand name Adenuric.

What type of drug is febuxostat? ›

Febuxostat is in a class of medications called xanthine oxidase inhibitors. It works by decreasing the amount of uric acid that is made in the body. Febuxostat is used to prevent gout attacks but not to treat them once they occur.

Why is febuxostat used? ›

Febuxostat is used to lower hyperuricemia (high uric acid in the blood) in patients with gout who have been treated with allopurinol that did not work well or cannot be treated with allopurinol. This medicine is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. It works by causing less uric acid to be produced by the body.

What are the 4 best blood pressure drugs? ›

In terms of prescriptions written, here are the top 4 high blood pressure medications,
  • the ACE inhibitor lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril) tops the list,
  • followed by amlodipine besylate (Norvasc),
  • a calcium channel blocker, and.
  • generic hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ).

What is another name for losartan? ›

Losartan (Cozaar) is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB). It blocks a chemical that causes blood vessels to tighten.

What is beta-blocker? ›

Listen to pronunciation. (BAY-tuh-BLAH-ker) A type of drug that blocks the action of substances, such as adrenaline, on nerve cells and causes blood vessels to relax and dilate (widen). This allows blood to flow more easily and lowers blood pressure and the heart rate.

What is clopidogrel used for? ›

Clopidogrel reduces the ability of the platelets to stick together and reduces the risk of clots forming. This protects you from having a stroke or heart attack.

What is omeprazole used for? ›

Omeprazole: a medicine to treat heartburn and indigestion - NHS.

What is gabapentin used for? ›

Gabapentin is used to treat epilepsy. It's also taken for nerve pain, which can be caused by different conditions, including diabetes and shingles. Nerve pain can also happen after an injury. In epilepsy, it's thought that gabapentin stops seizures by reducing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain.

What drugs are high in uric acid? ›

Examples of medicines that increase uric acid levels
  • Diuretics (see below)
  • Aspirin low dose (less than 300 mg daily)
  • Nicotinic acid.
  • Levodopa.
  • Ciclosporin.
  • Tacrolimus.
15 Sept 2021

What is the most common drug used for gout? ›

Allopurinol is a medicine used to lower levels of uric acid in your blood. If you produce too much uric acid or your kidneys do not filter enough out, it can build up and cause tiny, sharp crystals to form in and around your joints. Allopurinol is used to treat gout and kidney stones.

What is dangerously high uric acid? ›

Uric acid formation may occur when the blood uric acid level rises above 7 mg/dL. Problems, such as kidney stones, and gout (collection of uric acid crystals in the joints, especially in your toes and fingers), may occur.

Is lemon good for uric acid? ›

Lemon juice may help balance uric acid levels because it helps make the body more alkaline. This means it slightly raises the pH level of blood and other fluids. Lemon juice also makes your urine more alkaline.

Is losartan a uricosuric? ›

Conclusions: In contrast to irbesartan, losartan was uricosuric and decreased serum uric acid levels.

What is the first-line treatment for gout? ›

First-line therapy for acute gout is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or corticosteroids, depending on comorbidities; colchicine is second-line therapy. After the first gout attack, modifiable risk factors (e.g., high-purine diet, alcohol use, obesity, diuretic therapy) should be addressed.

What is the fastest treatment for gout? ›

The Best Way to Treat a Gout Attack

Anti-inflammatory drugs like naproxen (which can be purchased over the counter or in prescription strength) Colchicine, which reduces uric acid build-up. Steroids, such as prednisone.

What is the main cause of gout? ›

Gout is caused by a condition known as hyperuricemia, where there is too much uric acid in the body. The body makes uric acid when it breaks down purines, which are found in your body and the foods you eat.

Videos

1. Uricosuric Top # 9 Facts
(Sisodiya Kalpana)
2. Chronic Gout Treatment - The Second Phase of Treating Gout (6 of 6)
(Johns Hopkins Rheumatology)
3. USMLE Gout Pharmacology
(The Pharm Guys)
4. Drugs for Gout 3 (Uricosuric Drugs + Recombinant Uricases)
(Mai Kadry)
5. Gout - Mechanisms & Treatment
(PhysioPathoPharmaco)
6. Anti Gout drugs part 2 Chronic Gout and its Treatment
(The Medicomer)

Top Articles

Latest Posts

Article information

Author: Laurine Ryan

Last Updated: 11/29/2022

Views: 6057

Rating: 4.7 / 5 (77 voted)

Reviews: 92% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Laurine Ryan

Birthday: 1994-12-23

Address: Suite 751 871 Lissette Throughway, West Kittie, NH 41603

Phone: +2366831109631

Job: Sales Producer

Hobby: Creative writing, Motor sports, Do it yourself, Skateboarding, Coffee roasting, Calligraphy, Stand-up comedy

Introduction: My name is Laurine Ryan, I am a adorable, fair, graceful, spotless, gorgeous, homely, cooperative person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.