Felonies and misdemeanors are ways criminal law classifies crimes. A felony is a crime that is more serious in nature than a misdemeanor. If convicted, an individual may be sentenced from over one year to life in a state or federal prison.
A felony is the most serious category of crime in criminal law. It can be violent or non-violent in nature. Felonies are crimes that are considered harmful or dangerous to society. Crimes that are classified as felonies vary by jurisdiction. Depending on the state, the punishment for a felony can include the death penalty. Examples of felony crimes include:
- Homicide or murder;
- Rape; and/or
- Selling or trafficking controlled substances.
Crimes that are considered less serious than felonies are misdemeanors. A misdemeanor is typically punishable by less than one year in a county jail. Like felonies, misdemeanors can be violent or non-violent in nature. This type of crime usually involves minor offenses that cause minor damage.
What crimes are classified as a misdemeanor vary by jurisdiction. A misdemeanor petty crimes list can include, but is not limited to:
- Some traffic offenses, including drunk driving offenses;
- Minor offenses involving bodily harm, including assault and battery;
- Evading the police;
- Criminal mischief;
- Interference with child custody;
- Possession of a controlled substance and other drug crimes; and/or
A third category of crime, also the least serious, is the citation or infraction. An infraction is a petty offense that usually does not result in jail time. It is less serious that both felonies and misdemeanors.
What are Non-Violent Felonies?
A non-violent felony is a crime that is very serious but does not involve the use or threat of force. These felonies do not result in physical injury to another individual. Although felonies are generally violent crimes, there are several non-violent felonies.
Many non-violent crimes involve property damage, including larceny and/or theft. The seriousness of this type of felony is determined by economic or financial losses of the victim.
Many non-violent felonies are considered to be victimless crimes. This does not mean there is not an individual who suffers a loss, it is simply a classification. Certain victimless offenses are criminalized for moral and societal purposes. Non-violent felonies can include:
- White collar crime, which includes fraud, tax crimes, bribery and/or counterfeiting;
- Property crime including embezzlement, theft, receipt of stolen goods, and/or arson; and/or
- Drug and alcohol crimes including public intoxication, drug manufacturing and/or drug distribution.
Some non-violent felonies are very specific and expand on the broad categories mentioned above. They vary by type of intent, amount of damage and seriousness of the crime. They include:
- Cyber crime;
- Criminal property damage;
- Gambling while using or selling cheating devices;
- Driving under the influence or driving while intoxicated;
- Use and/or manufacturing of counterfeit gambling chips; and/or
- Escape from a government confinement such as a prison or jail.
These types of crimes are classified as non-violent because they do not result in physical injury to a victim. These types of felonies usually result in economic, financial or property loss. Should the crime committed result in physical injury or death of an individual, it becomes violent in nature and is sentenced accordingly. A crime would also not be considered non-violent if a weapon was used in its commission.
There are some crimes that do not actually result in injury to an individual that can still be classified as a violent crime. Threatening an individual with injury is one example.
What are Some Examples of Nonviolent Crimes?
Non-violent crimes, as noted above, do not involve the use of force or injury to another individual. This can include a broad range of crimes, citations and misdemeanors. The most common types of nonviolent crime committed include property crimes resulting in property damage or theft. The second most common are drug related crimes.
Common examples of serious felonies include:
- Property crimes, such as burglary and theft;
- White collar crimes such as fraud and tax crimes;
- Drug and alcohol related crimes;
- Gambling and racketeering crimes; and
The federal felonies list consists of approximately 43 levels of felony crimes instead of classes of felony crimes. Felonies under federal law are divided into 5 categories:
- D; and
A Class A federal felony is the most serious and carries punishment of life in prison and a fine of up to $250,000.00. Federal crimes often include but are not limited to:
- Mail fraud;
- Aircraft hijacking;
- Credit card fraud; and
- Identity theft.
What are Some of the Consequences of Non-Violent Felony Convictions?
In most cases, non-violent crimes are not punished as harshly as violent crimes. They are generally punished by a small fine and a short jail sentence. Consequences for non-violent felonies are not as severe as those for violent felonies.
Although punishment may be less serious, they may still be considerable. Punishment will vary by jurisdiction and severity of the crime. Punishment for non-violent felonies may include:
- Lengthy prison time;
- A long period of probation or parole; and/or
- Large fines, possibly including restitution.
There are also other life-long consequences that can occur after a felony conviction, even if the felony was non-violent. These can include:
- Loss of employment;
- Loss of voting rights;
- Loss of firearms rights, either to purchase or own;
- Being unable to obtain a professional license;
- Being unable to attend school; and/of
- Being unable to rent housing.
Are there any Defenses to Non-Violent Felony Charges?
Defenses available to non-violent felony charges will vary by case. Law enforcement must conduct an investigation to determine there is probably cause for an arrest prior to pressing charges against an individual. It is possible that their findings were incorrect. Providing such a mistake is an excellent defense.
There are some common defenses for non-violent felony charges. These include, but are not limited to:
- A mistake in identification of the defendant;
- A mistake or accident;
- A lack of probable cause for the arrest;
- The defendant had permission or consent; and/or
- Fourth amendment violations such as illegal search and seizure of personal property; and/or
- Fifth amendment rights violations such as failure to provide advise a defendant of their Miranda Rights.
In many cases, a felony first offender will receive a lighter sentence than a repeat offender. First offense is a term used to describe a defendant facing charges for the first time with no prior convictions or previous criminal record. In most cases, a first time offender receives leniency from the court, depending, of course, on the circumstances of the crime and the charges the defendant is facing.
Felony charges for a minor may result in different types of punishment if they are convicted. Juvenile courts have many sentencing options, called disposition orders, that can be imposed on juvenile offenders found to be delinquent. Delinquent is a term used when the court finds the minor violated a criminal law.
Generally, disposition orders can include incarceration or a non-incarceration option, such as probation. Although the court may order incarceration, it may be different than adult incarceration which includes jail or prison. Should a juvenile be incarcerated, it may include:
- House arrest or home confinement with exceptions such as work and school;
- Placement with an individual other than the parent or guardian such as a relative or group home;
- A juvenile detention facility or juvenile hall;
- Probation following a short time in juvenile hall;
- A secured juvenile facility, usually used for longer terms of incarceration;
- Juvenile and adult jails with a blended sentence; and/or
- Adult jail.
Do I Need an Attorney for Help with a Non-Violent Felony Charge?
Although a charge may be for a non-violent felony, it is still a felony charge which can have long-lasting and detrimental consequences if you are convicted. It is imperative to have a criminal attorney assist you throughout your case.
The difference in punishment for violent and non-violent felony convictions varies based on specific details of the case and defenses presented. A criminal attorney may use their own investigator to review your case and determine what facts can provide a strong defense.
An experienced attorney will review your case and the specific laws and penalties in your area. They will also guide you through the proceedings and represent you during any court appearances. An attorney will be able to help you provide your best defense and your best chance at a better outcome.
White collar crime, including fraud, tax crimes, bribery and/or counterfeiting; Property crime including embezzlement, theft, receipt of stolen goods; Drug and alcohol crimes including public intoxication, drug manufacturing and/or drug distribution.
Examples of Non-Violent Crimes
Majority of Property Crimes (such as larceny, theft, embezzlement) White Collar Crimes (including fraud & tax crimes) Drug Crimes. Alcohol-Related Crimes.
Nonvio- lent crimes are defined as property, drug, and public order offenses which do not involve a threat of harm or an actual attack upon a victim. Typically, the most frequently identified nonviolent crimes involve drug trafficking, drug possession, burglary, and larceny.
Violent felonies involve physical harm to another person, or involve some element of a serious threat of harm, usually with a weapon of some sort. Non-violent felonies therefore take a very wide range of crimes, and include theft crimes, drug crimes, and fraud/misrepresentation crimes.
Non-violent crimes are most often some type of theft or larceny. Violent crimes, on the other hand, are considered offenses against a person. This means that another person's physical body was harmed during the committing of a crime. The way that non-violent and violent crimes are penalized is important to understand.
In general, felony offenses, whether state or federal, carry a minimum sentence of one year in prison. Federal felony crimes are divided into classes, with increasing maximum sentences based on the severity of the crime: Class "E" felonies are the least serious and carry penalties of up to three years in prison.
A misdemeanor is typically punishable by less than one year in a county jail. Like felonies, misdemeanors can be violent or non-violent in nature. This type of crime usually involves minor offenses that cause minor damage.
Infractions, which can also be called violations, are the least serious crimes and include minor offenses such as jaywalking and motor vehicle offenses that result in a simple traffic ticket.
- Drug Crimes.
- Criminal Attempt, Conspiracy, and Aiding and Abetting.
- Federal Crimes, Cybercrimes, and Juvenile Crimes.
- Sex Crimes.
- Theft Crimes.
- Traffic Offenses.
- Violent Crimes.
Grand theft is the more severe offense, and is considered a minor felony in many states. Petty theft is the less serious offense. It is considered as a misdemeanor, but multiple charges of petty thefts can lead to a felony charge.
Many states have three strikes laws, also known as a three strikes rule. These laws impose harsher sentences on individuals who have been convicted of certain felonies three times. In most cases, the penalty upon the third conviction is a mandatory sentence of life in prison.
Crimes That Count as "Serious" or "Violent" Felonies
murder. voluntary manslaughter. rape. a felony in which the defendant personally causes great bodily injury.
In the FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program, violent crime is composed of four offenses: murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. Violent crimes are defined in the UCR Program as those offenses which involve force or threat of force.
Nearly half (46%) of people incarcerated in state prisons in 2015 were convicted of nonviolent drug, property or public order crimes. People convicted of drug offenses were 16 percent of state prisoners and 50% of federal prison inmates in 2015.
A felony charge can be pending for as long as the statute of limitations runs on the case. For example, if the felony has a statute of limitation of 5 years, that is the length of the pending charges. The minimum statute of limitations for felonies is three years.
For instance, judges may typically consider factors that include the following:
- the defendant's past criminal record, age, and sophistication.
- the circumstances under which the crime was committed, and.
- whether the defendant genuinely feels remorse.
|Classification||Crime (CGS §)||Maximum Prison Sentence|
|Class B Felonies||Enticing a minor (when minor under age 13) (53a-90a)||20 years|
|Kidnapping 2nd degree (53a-94)||20 years|
|Kidnapping 2nd degree with a firearm (53a-94a)||20 years|
|Burglary 1st degree (with explosive, deadly weapon, or dangerous instrument) (53a-101)||20 years|
Felony crimes involve drug and narcotics charges, arson, burglary, armed robbery, murder and/or attempted murder, rape and/or sexual assault, kidnapping and aggravated assault and battery.
In U.S. law the classification of a crime as a felony or as a misdemeanour is ordinarily determined by the penalties attached to the offense. A felony is typically defined as a crime punishable by a term of imprisonment of one year or more.
A convicted felon is, by definition, someone who has been convicted of a felony. Under law, a felony is the most severe class of crime. Most people who are convicted of a felony spend time in prison or jail as part of their punishment under law.
Generally, a crime is considered a felony when it is punishable by more than a year in a state prison (also called a penitentiary). Examples of felonies are murder, rape, burglary, and the sale of illegal drugs. Misdemeanors are less serious crimes, and are typically punishable by up to a year in county jail.
Is doxxing illegal? It should be illegal, and in some cases, it is. But it can be difficult for law enforcement to track down and enforce the laws against it.
Sensitive information that should never be publicly available, such as your social security number, is just one of many different data points that are included in your online dossier, which is referred to as your dox.. Doxxing originated from the slang term “dropping dox,” a form of revenge practiced by hackers, which involved revealing personal information from another hacker.. A dox typically includes your name, home address, employment address, phone numbers, social profiles, personal photos, detailed family information, and social security number.. When someone is doxxed for a reason other than harassment or intimidation, it becomes a crime if the perpetrator used illegal methods to obtain the information.. While doxxing has been used to a large extent as a way to attack people for perceived wrongdoings, anyone can be the victim of doxxing.. As detailed as the information in a dox file is, that information is surprisingly easy to find if you know where to look.. The information included will be whatever information you have on file with your domain provider.. While many email services encrypt the information in the email during transit, the text of every email is stored in a server before arriving in the recipient’s inbox.. Data brokers collect data from a variety of different sources to find as much information as possible about an individual.
A misdemeanor charge is considerably easier to deal with than a felony charge, as felonies tend to come with much longer incarceration times, fines, and lingering consequences. The point when a drug charge cross over from a simple misdemeanor to a defending a felony charge has to do with how much there is, what kind of drugs, and whether it was being sold or trafficked. Possession of a drug is much more likely to be a misdemeanor than when drugs have been transferred from one person or place to another. Here's some details about how much and what scenarios constitute as a felony conviction.
The point when a drug charge cross over from a simple misdemeanor to a defending a felony charge has to do with how much there is, what kind of drugs, and whether it was being sold or trafficked.. The way the system regulates the types of controlled substances is through categorizing drugs into certain “Schedules.” Starting at Schedule I with the most dangerous drugs, the list goes down to Schedule V, which are drugs that aren’t as severe and may even have medical benefits to them.. However, the “drug” parts of these drugs are usually much less than their “real” drug counterparts.. The two conditions of a scenario where someone is caught with drugs on their possession that determine the severity of the charge is the amount and what type of drug it is.. The amount of time and money or even community service or other punishments that will accompany a felony charge of drug possession will depend on criteria discussed, such as how much, what type of drug, and any previous offenses.. However, different ways that one can distribute drugs include not only conventional sales, but also by shipping through mail , transporting drugs by any type of vehicle, giving drugs without payment, or even simply advertising or coordinating the sale.. Drug trafficking doesn’t only include the transfer of drugs over state lines.. Trafficking drugs covers quite a few types of charges that could arise, ranging anywhere in the process of the production and distribution of drugs.. Marijuana is still illegal federally, and it is possible to be charged in a legal state if your charge crosses the line into federal territory, typically involving the transport of drugs over state lines.. Making the drug legal for medicinal use allows users to have the drug only with a doctor’s prescription, much like for any other controlled substance.. Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com The biggest factors that turn a misdemeanor drug charge into a felony are the type of drug, amount, and prior convictions.
Types of violent crime include assault and battery, robbery, and sexual assault. Gain more insights from LegalMatch's law library.
Generally speaking, violent crimes or violent criminal offenses involve the use of force and/or injury to the body of another person.. Some crimes may qualify as violent crimes even if the victim was not injured.. An example of this would be how many crimes involving the threat of injury to a person may qualify as a violent crime, such as with assault crimes.. Simply put, a violent crime belongs to the class of crimes containing some element of violence.. Violent crimes are often set in contrast to other types of crime, such as property crime, because the other party does not get injured.. However, there are some crimes such as homicide that will always be considered a felony crime.. If the case goes to trial and you are convicted of a violent crime, you would then proceed to the sentencing phase .. State laws vary regarding parole; however, the convicted person must usually serve at least one third of their original sentence in order to be eligible for parole.. Generally speaking, violent crimes are not eligible for parole or probation.. What legal defenses are available for committing a violent crime vary by state, as well as the facts of your case and your criminal history.. Mistake of Fact: If the defendant proves that there was no violence involved in the crime, or that they were not the person who actually committed the crime, this defense may be available.
Penal Code 3455 PC allows California courts to revoke or modify the post-release community supervision (PRCS) of convicted felons who violate its terms.
Note that community supervision is not the same thing as probation.. Also note that PRCS is a different supervisory program than parole .. Prior to 2011, all felons released from prison were placed on parole and supervised by the state.. Certain convicted felons get placed on PRCS after leaving California State Prison .. required to complete no more than three years of community supervision, eligible for discharge from supervision after six months , and able to end supervision after 12 months if they have not violated any conditions of supervision.. any critical information to the petition, the relevant terms and conditions of post-release supervision, the circumstances of the alleged violation, the history and background of the violator (or person subject to PRCS), and any recommendations to the hearing officer.. PRCS refers to a supervisory period where a county agency is responsible for monitoring a felon after his/her release from prison.. Felony probation, or formal probation , is part of a felon’s sentencing and it provides an alternative to placing a convicted felon in state prison.. Probation allows convicted felons to serve all or part of their sentence out of custody but under the supervision of a probation officer .. warn the person and reinstate the same probation terms, modify the terms and include harsher conditions, or revoke it and send the person to county jail or state prison.. Felony probation only applies if a person committed a felony.. While PRCS involves community supervision , though, felons on parole are supervised on the state level .. Members of the department (e.g., “parole officers”) supervise released felons for the time for which they are on parole.. Not all inmates are eligible for parole.
Search Nevada state records. Find Nevada criminal, court, inmate, marriage, divorce, birth, death, phone, address, bankruptcy, sex offender, property, arrest, people, relatives, legal, tax and other records on StateRecords.org
The first step to take when trying to obtain court records in Nevada is to locate the court where the court records are kept.. In the State, it is generally the Court Clerks' responsibility to keep a record of information concerning court cases.. To access court records in the Appellate Courts, interested entities may utilize the " Find A Case " page on the Supreme Court's website.. The appellate courts consist of the Supreme Court of Nevada and the Nevada Court of Appeals.. The trial courts are made up of the District Court, the Justice Courts, and the Municipal Courts.. The Supreme Court is the court of last resort in Nevada because it is the highest court in the State.. An Appeal is a request sent by a court case party to a court with appellate jurisdiction to review a decision over a case.. Apart from reviewing appeals from the District Courts, the Supreme Court oversees the activities of the State of Nevada's court system.. Four family Drug Courts Seven DUI Courts One Prostitution Prevention Court Two Habitual Offender Courts Four Juvenile Drug Courts Two Medicated Assistance Courts 19 Adult Drug Courts One Re-entry court Three Community Courts Seven Mental Health Courts
Louisiana public records are government records that are open to inspection by members of the public. They include information maintained by officials, departments and government agencies. Learn more about the eligibility, requirements and steps for obtaining different records in the state of Louisiana.
Staterecords.org provides access to CRIMINAL, PUBLIC, and VITAL RECORDS (arrest records, warrants, felonies, misdemeanors, sexual offenses, mugshots, criminal driving violations, convictions, jail records, legal judgments, and more) aggregated from a variety of sources, such as county sheriff's offices, police departments, courthouses, incarceration facilities, and municipal, county and other public and private sources.. The Louisiana Public Records Law ensures public access to most records generated by government agencies in the state.. Public court records Public bankruptcy records Public inmate records Public sex offender records Public Louisiana divorce records Public property records. The law states that where there is uncertainty about a record’s public status, the burden of proving that the public record is not subject to disclosure rests with the public agency or its appointed records custodian.. Although the public record law ensures access to most records, some sensitive or confidential information may not be open to the public.. The Louisiana Public Records Law requires agencies to allow the inspection or copying of public records in custody.. The Louisiana Public Records Law also states that agencies may reduce or waive copy fees if the requester is an indigent citizen or the request is for a public purpose ( La.
The U.S, with only 4.25 percent of the world’s general population, has a stunning 25 percent of its prisoners. One out of every a hundred people living in America is living behind bars. The prison population is so enormous in a country that is the global arbitrator of human rights; it must be leading with […]
As of 2019, the United States apprehended about 2.19 million prisoners, 1.38 million in federal correctional facilities, while 745,200 in jails.. The war on drugs in the United States increased inmate numbers in prisons by 500 percent from the 1970s to the late 1900s.. Following laws such as Three Strikes Laws, there were convictions for life imprisonment without parole, and as a result, prisons were over-congested, and some prisoners began to fight back.. California State prisons have a hundred and forty-four percent of capacity, and in Alabama, the most overcrowded prison State sits at a hundred and ninety-five percent of capacity.. More than 1.25 million prisoners suffer from mental torment, four times higher than in the late 1990s, making them more likely to end up in prison serving longer sentences.. The United States has incarcerated many foreign prisoners, making this one of the most challenging subjects facing correction centers.
The attorneys in this unit handle appeals in the Court of Appeals, the Washington State Supreme Court and the United States Supreme Court. These attorneys also advise on complex legal issues that arise in the trial courts.
The attorneys in this unit handle appeals in the Court of Appeals, the Washington State Supreme Court and the United States Supreme Court.. Click here to read more about CSU The District Court Unit is responsible for screening and prosecuting all criminal traffic and misdemeanor cases arising in unincorporated King County.. Organized into six areas at four different locations, the Domestic Violence Unit is responsible for handling all domestic violence felonies in King County, all misdemeanor and gross misdemeanor domestic violence cases from unincorporated areas, as well as providing criminal advocacy services on all domestic violence cases and protection order advocacy to several thousand victims annually.. In addition to a high volume and intense trial practice, the Domestic Violence Unit engages in many innovative practices from utilizing new technologies in investigations, King County Firearms Forfeiture Project, to working with law enforcement and local domestic violence advocacy organizations to promote a coordinated community response.. The Domestic Violence Unit was a founding partner in the domestic violence courts in District Court, and the specialized domestic violence case management system in Superior Court.. The mission of the Domestic Violence Unit is to break the cycle of domestic violence by increasing accountability for domestic violence offenders and improving safety for victims of domestic violence and their children.. Cases handled by the Economic Crimes Unit cover a wide range of crimes from simple thefts and narcotics cases to complex organized criminal activity, including: public corruption, abuse of office, employee thefts, insurance frauds, environmental crimes, investment frauds, mortgage frauds, aggravated consumer frauds, frauds against the elderly and vulnerable victims, frauds against government, and technology crimes.. The Involuntary Treatment Act Unit (ITA) handles involuntary mental health treatment commitment cases.. ITA Court should not be confused with criminal mental health courts, which are run by either the King County District Court or Seattle Municipal Court and are part of the criminal justice system.. The King County Prosecutor's Office prides itself for creating one of the first specialized units in the country to deal exclusively with cases involving the sexual and physical abuse of children, as well as sexual offenses against adults.. Since its creation, the King County Prosecutor's Office Special Assault Unit has worked collaboratively with law enforcement, Child Protective Services and local advocacy groups.. The objective of the Special Operations Unit is to provide assistance to police and prosecutors in a wide variety of matters, including covert, complex, technology-based and/or sensitive investigations, and all cases involving electronic surveillance.. Narcotics Case Development The unit includes Case Development Deputies who are imbedded with local law enforcement and task force groups to provide real time and detailed legal assistance in combating Drug Trafficking Organizations.. Cases handled by the Violent and Economic Crimes Unit (VECU) cover a wide range of crimes in South King County.
For more than a century, innumerable studies have confirmed two simple yet powerful truths about the relationship between immigration and crime: immigrants are less likely to commit serious crimes or be behind bars than the native-born, and high rates of immigration are associated with lower rates of violent crime and property crime.
Published For more than a century, innumerable studies have confirmed two simple yet powerful truths about the relationship between immigration and crime: immigrants are less likely to commit serious crimes or be behind bars than the native-born, and high rates of immigration are associated with lower rates of violent crime and property crime.. A variety of different studies using different methodologies have found that immigrants are less likely than the native-born to engage in either violent or nonviolent “antisocial” behaviors; that immigrants are less likely than the native-born to be repeat offenders among “high risk” adolescents; and that immigrant youth who were students in U.S. middle and high schools in the mid-1990s and are now young adults have among the lowest delinquency rates of all young people.. Despite the abundance of evidence that immigration is not linked to higher crime rates, and that immigrants are less likely to be criminals than the native-born, many U.S. policymakers succumb to their fears and prejudices about what they imagine immigrants to be.. For more than a century, innumerable studies have confirmed two simple yet powerful truths about the relationship between immigration and crime: immigrants are less likely to commit serious crimes or be behind bars than the native-born, and high rates of immigration are associated with lower rates of violent crime and property crime.. Unfortunately, immigration policy is frequently shaped more by fear and stereotype than by empirical evidence, which is partly why immigrants are often treated like dangerous criminals by the U.S. immigration system.. Moreover, immigrants are less likely than the native-born to be behind bars or to engage in typically “criminal behaviors.” Second, the report describes the ways in which U.S. immigration laws and policies are re-defining the notion of “criminal” as it applies to immigrants, while also ramping up the enforcement programs designed to find anyone who might be deportable.. However, the inverse relationship between immigration and crime is also apparent in “new” immigrant gateways, such as Austin, where rates of both violent crime and serious property crime have declined despite high levels of new immigration.. But the study then goes on to answer the question of whether these decreasing incarceration rates are the result of harsh immigration policies enacted in the 1990s, either because more immigrants were deported or because more were deterred from criminal behavior because of the threat of deportation.. The most probable explanation for the increase is that many more immigrant men were incarcerated for immigration-related offenses during the first decade of the 21stcentury as Congress redefined more and more immigration offenses as criminal (such as unauthorized entry or re-entry into the country), thus triggering criminal incarceration before deportation.. Not only did the study examine immigrants in federal prison during the Fiscal Year (FY) 2005-2010 period, but also non-federal immigrant prisoners for whom state and local governments had sought federal reimbursement of some incarceration costs through the U.S. Department of Justice’s State Criminal Alien Assistance Program (SCAAP) during the FY 2003-2009 period.. Add Health offers a “national, longitudinal account of delinquency by gender, race/ethnicity, and immigrant group from the onset of adolescence (ages 11-12) to the transition into adulthood (ages 25-26).” The study found that “immigrant youth who enrolled in U.S. middle and high schools in the mid-1990s and who are young adults today had among the lowest delinquency rates of all youth.” The authors conclude that the national-level data gathered by Add Health “debunk(s) the myth of immigrant criminality.. Despite the abundance of evidence that immigration is not linked to higher crime rates, and that immigrants are less likely to be criminals than the native-born, many U.S. policymakers succumb to their fears and prejudices about what they imagine immigrants to be.. Starting in the mid-1980s, the expansion of the infrastructure for detention in the United States was based not only on an escalating crackdown on immigrants, but was also a central component of the “war on drugs.” While IRCA and the Immigration Act of 1990 specifically expanded immigration detention, prisons were also filled with offenders—immigrant and native-born alike—on the basis of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 (which created the concept of the “aggravated felony”), the Crime Control Act of 1990, and the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, among other laws.. More precisely, the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT) Act of 2001, the Homeland Security Act of 2002, and the Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act of 2002 collectively “illustrate the accelerating criminalization of the immigration system.” This intersection of criminal and immigration law has led to a notable increase in deportations.. As law professor Teresa A. Miller notes, “After the attacks, zero-tolerance enforcement of immigration laws was extended to immigrants who had not passed through the criminal justice system, such as asylum seekers and undocumented immigrants.” The PATRIOT Act in particular allowed federal officers to apprehend and detain “non-citizens on immigration grounds without legal review and without public disclosure of the specific charge for a period of seven days, or for a maximum of six months if the case is deemed a national security risk.”